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C. 930 - 1006 JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN (Kairouan, Tunisia)

Scholar. He was considered on of the leaders of the North African or Maghreb community

930 - 991 YAQUB IBN YUSUF IBN KILLIS ( Baghdad - Egypt)

Financial advisor first under the Ikhshidid dynasty and then under the Fatimid’s. Born into a Jewish family his father took him to Egypt where he proved to have great abilities in the economic sphere. Pressured by Abu al-Misk Kafur (905–968) he converted to Islam, and had a successful career under various rulers. He was often accused of showing favor to Jews.

931 VERONA (Italy)

Ratherius, the Bishop of Verona, upset about the good relations between the city and its Jewish inhabitants, badgered the town elders until they agree to temporarily expel the Jews. Jews had lived in the town since Roman times.

931 931 ROMANOS I LEKAPENOS (Byzantine Empire)

After a series of eco-disasters, including a plague, the emperor (c. 870-948) called for the forced conversion of Jews or to exclude them from all of Christendom” Many Jew fled to Khazaria or went into hiding until the ruling was overturned by his sons in 944.


Emperor Romanus Lecapenus (Lekapenos)(920-944), co-ruler with Constantine VII, commanded that the Jews in the realm be forcibly baptized. Though it resulted in a mass emigration, his decree was never fully realized. This may have been due to the influence of Hasdai ibn Saprut, who used his position to persuade Constantine. Or, as others relate, it may be due to pressure from the king of Khazaria, who threatened to attack if the decree was not called off.


The famous robe of silk and gold was created for Roger II by Jewish craftsmen from Palermo. This robe was used in the coronation ceremonies of the Hapsburg Emperors.

939 - 1038 HAI BEN SHERIRA GAON (Babylon)

Descendant of King David and last of the influential Geonim. Over one-third of the existing responsa (almost one thousand) in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic are from Hai Gaon. He ruled that in the case of conflict, the Babylonian Talmud took precedence over the Jerusalem Talmud.

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