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732 BATTLE OF TOURS (France)

Marked the greatest infiltration of Moslem rule into Christian Europe and the beginning of its retreat. The Moslems were defeated by Charles Martel of France, grandfather of Charlemagne. This was the beginning of the Carolingian renaissance. Now on the offensive, the Christian forces added Septimania and Catalonia (near the Mediterranean Sea) to their possessions.


Who had been passed over to be the next Exilarch decided leave Sura and eventually settled in Spain. There Natronai ( c.699-c733) began to introduce the Talmud to the local Jews , writing it down from memory. This became the basis for the development of Jewish scholarship in Spain which freed them from having to wait up to two years for an answer to come from Babylon regarding a point of Jewish law. . By the mid 9th century a request was made to the Gaon Paltoi bar Abaye for a corrected and exact version of the Talmud to which he complied. The Spanish edition of the Talmud became known as the most reliable version.


Lasted until the Treaty of Verdun. The Carolingians were the second dynasty of Frankish rulers after the Merovingians. During the height of its rule it encompassed Gaul, and much of Germany and Italy. The Jews were generally well treated, especially under Charlemagne and his grandson, Charles the Bald. Part of this was due to the fact that Christian merchants had difficulties trading due to Arab control of the seas. The Jewish traders known as the “Radhanites” (see 870) provided an alternative to moving goods between the two antagonistic empires . This lasted only until the closure of the China and Caucasus trade routes and the rise of the Italian city state (Venice, Pisa, Genoa and, Amalfi) traders in the 10th century.

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