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410 ROME

Was sacked by Alaric, king of the Visigoths. The treasures of the Second Temple fell into his hands. What remained was taken to Carthage by the Vandals (455).

412 HONORIUS (Co-Emperor)

After a number of synagogues were desecrated issued a demand that they be respected, which was in general ignored.


Incited the Greeks to kill or expel the Jews. Cyril (376-44) who was appointed patriarch of Alexandria in 412 forced his way into the synagogue at the head of a mob, expelled the Jews and gave their property to the crowd. The Prefect Orestes, who refused to condone this behavior, was set upon and almost stoned to death. Only one Jew, Adamanlius, agreed to be baptized. Within a few years Jews were allowed to return, but a majority of them returned only after the Mohammedans conquered Egypt.

415 October 20, GAMLIEL VI ( Eretz Israel)

Was deposed of his office as Nasi of the Sanhedrin ( Patriarch). Gamliel (c. 370425) lost his position after authorizing the building of a synagogue, in contradiction to the edit of the Western Emperor Honorius (384 423) prohibiting the building of new synagogues. Gamliel who was also a physician, had also held the Roman rank of prefect . The office of Patriarch was abolished by the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II (408-450).


Jews were allegedly accused that during their revelry of the Purim holiday they " mistreated ( a Christian boy) until he died". The incident was only reported by one church historian Socrates Scholasticus and totally ignored by all others for hundreds of years. It is only in 1150 that it was revived and embellished by Thomas of Monmouth who claimed that it was not drunkenness, but actually part of a Jewish ritual in his book, The life, and miracles of St William of Norwich (see 1150).

418 MAGONA ( Minorca- Balearic Islands off Spain's eastern coast)

Severus, the bishop of Minorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews tornaccept Christianity upon conquering the Island. This is the first we know ofrnJews on this Island as well as the first case of Jews being forced tornconvert or face expulsion. Although in general forced conversions (as later laidrndown by Pope Gregory I) were officially frowned upon, they were consideredrnvalid - and backsliding was usually considered heresy. Harsher "no choice"rnforced conversions began in the 9th century. rnrn


As part of what would be known as the Codex Theodosianus (CTh 16.8.24), Jews were banned from joining the imperial service, "They are however allowed to continue to serve as advocates before judges (see 439).

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