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390 AMMENMAR (Babylon)

Re-opened the academy at Nehardea 131 years after its destruction by Odenathus.

C. 390 KINGDOM OF HIMYAR (Southwestern Arabian Peninsula)

Led by Tub'a Abu Kariba As'ad (Abu Kariba) the tribal leadership converted to a form of Judaism. Abu Kariba had become ill while besieging Yathrib ( Medina), and was cured by two Jewish doctors who persuaded him to lift the siege. He became interested in Judaism and converted along with much of his population. He ruled between 378-430. Himyar flourished expanding northwards into central Arabia, until around 500 when it was conquered by Christians from the kingdom of Axum (Aksum), in present day Ethiopia. ( see. 517)


Was canonized.

395 January, ARCADIUS (Eastern Roman Empire)

Succeeded Theodosius the Great at the age of 17. Arcadius (377-408) was a weak ruler, influenced by advisors, church officials, and his wife Aelia Flaccilla, who Ambrose considered a " pillar of the church". His first few years of reign were more or less favorable, continuing the status quo regarding the Jews. This changed as the local population spurred on by the preaching of Chrysostom in Antioch and Cyril in Jerusalem rioted, and urged him to promote new legislation against the Jews.

398 Apulia (Puglia) Southern Italy

The existence of numerous Jewish communities was confirmed in a document from Emperor Honorius Flavius, the Western Roman Emperor, and son of Theodosius . Many of the communities in that area, date back to the destruction of the second temple.


Canon 89 prohibited the celebration of " Jewish superstitions and festivals", on pain of excommunication. In another canon, all those deemed "infamaia to wit, actors, persons of evil habits heretics, pagans, and Jews", were not permitted to give evidence in court.

398 February 3, ARCADUIS (Eastern Roman Empire)

Reduced Jewish judicial autonomy except on religious matters.

399 HONORIUS FLAVIUS (364-423 C.E.)

Confiscated gold and silver which had been collected by the synagogues to be sent to Jerusalem. He defined Judaism as an unworthy superstition (superstitio indigna). He was greatly influenced by St. Ambrose, and his legislation is considered to be a repercussion of the reign of Julian the Apostate.

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