361 - 363 JULIAN THE APOSTATE (Roman Empire)
The only non-Christian emperor since Constantine, he preferred Judaism to Christianity, considering Judaism closer to his conception of the Greco-Roman viewpoint. He planned to rebuild the Temple and even began construction, but he was killed on the battlefield. His plans died with him.In his war with Mesopotamia he encouraged the Jews to support him. The vast majority despite his promises of rebuilding a third temple continued to support Persia and were allowed to bear arms in self defense.
363 EARTHQUAKE (Eretz Israel)
A major earthquake over much of the country heavily damaged the cities of Sepphoris (Zippori) in the Galilee, and Afek (Antipatris) near the Yarkon River in the Sharon plains Sepphoris was rebuilt and continued to flourish until the Arab conquest. Afek never attained its former status.
Shapur II (309-379) forcibly transferred approximately 7000 Jews from outlying territories to the interior of Persia.
364 - 374 REIGN OF VALENTINIAN "THE GREAT"
Although he had a violent temper, he was considered, a good commander and apt administrator. Nominally a Christian, he permitted religious freedom for all his subjects and fought against the growing wealth of the clergy.
367 BISHOP HILARY (Hilarius) OF POITIERS
Referred to the Jews as â€œa perverse people whom God has cursed foreverâ€. Hilary (300-368) was recognized as one of the 36 "Doctors" or teachers of the church.