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The Jewish oath was abolished in France.

1830 - 1919 ABRAHAM JACOBI (Germany)

"Father of Pediatrics". In 1851 he was arrested and charged with treason for belonging to a revolutionary group. Two years later he was released and became a professor of children's diseases at the National Medical College.

1830 - 1909 LINA MORGENSTERN (Germany)

Educator and philanthropist. Morgenstern began her work by opening a school for the disadvantaged when she was only 18. She was active in many branches of philanthropy but most of her efforts went into education. She established the first free kitchens in Germany in 1866 as well as a society to help educate and defend the rights of women. She also authored a book on education Das Paradies der Kinderheit.

1830 - 1831 POLAND

Revolted against Russia. Even during the revolt, General Chlopicki expelled the Jews from the National Guard at the insistence of the officers. The Jews formed their own unit called "the Beardlings".


This revolution - in which many Jews took part - was defeated.

1830 Rabbi Aaron Levy arrives in Australia

Rabbi Levy was sent by Rabbi Solomon Hershel chief rabbi of London, to help attain a get (divorce) from a male convict sent to Australia. He brought the first sefer torah (Torah scroll) and siddurim (prayer books). During his four month stay, he helped establish guidelines for religious practice and services. Until his arrival, there being few Jewish women, all children of mixed marriages had been considered Jewish, by agreement this was to end within two years.

1830 July 10, - 1903 CAMILLE PISSARRO (France)

Of Sephardic extraction, he became an important Impressionist painter and teacher. He mostly painted the busy streets of Paris and landscapes. He was associated with Monet and Corot. In the last years of his life he achieved recognition, and although suffering from an eye ailment painted 160 works in the last three years of his life.

1830 October 18, SEARCHING FOR THE TEN TRIBES (Safed)

Israel of Shklov officially delegates Baruch ben Samuel of Pinsk to search for the lost ten tribes. He seems to have received support from leading Rabbis in Europe, including the Gaon of Pinsk and Rabbi Akiva Eger. He was financed by among others, Zvi Hersh Lehren (1784-1853 head of the clerks organization of the holy land ( pekidim v'amarkalim ) in Amsterdam. Baruch was murdered by Yemini Iman Yahya on January 12 1834.


Jews had been present in Jamaica since the time of the British conquest in 1655, yet they were not allowed to vote until this date. Within fifteen years, eight of the 47 members of the House of Assembly (which didn't meet on Day of Atonement) were Jewish.

1831 - 1896 BARON MAURICE DE HIRSCH (France)

Banker and philanthropist, he tried at first to teach agriculture to Jews in Russia. When that failed, he established the Baron de Hirsch Fund of New York and later the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA). Both of these plans attempted to resettle the Jews in lands outside of Europe, especially Argentine rural areas, but both met with limited success. At the beginning of the 20th century the JCA also administered Baron Edmond de Rothschild's colonies in Eretz Israel. In 1873, Baron de Hirsch donated one million francs to the Alliance Israelite Universelle for its school system (see 1860).

1831 - 1840 ERETZ ISRAEL

Was occupied by the Egyptian force led by Mohammed Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha. In an effort to break the power of the Bedouins be brought a large group of Egyptians known as the Masarweh to settle in the country. Mohammed Ali also colonized Jaffa, Nablus, and Beit She'an with Egyptian soldiers and their Sudanese allies. He instituted reforms, which included legal rights to non-Moslem's, strengthened regional administrations to combat corruption ,and increased security on the roads. The latter made it much safer for westerners to travel from Jaffa to Jerusalem.

1831 - 1892 JUDAH LEIB GORDON (Vilna, Lithuania- St. Petersburg, Russia)

Hebrew poet and secularist, whose works included Hakitsah ‘ami (Awake My People!) , Kotso shel yod (The Tip of the Yud [Hebrew letter]) and Tsidkiyahu be-vet ha-pekudot (Zedekiah in Prison). Gordon though supportive of the Zionist cause, preferred emigration to the USA rather than Eretz Israel until those there ‘eliminated religion from their lives’.


Was appointed the Kalontar or headman of the Jewish community of Samarkand in Bukhara. He purchased an area for a Jewish quarter known as the Makhallai Yakhudion.


Was the first “constitution” in the Danubian provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia (pre- Romania). All Jews were required to register with local authorities, and to indicate their professions in order that “those Jews who [cannot] demonstrate their usefulness [could] be expelled…”


Successor to Charles X, he ratified a motion which put Judaism on a par with Christianity and granted state support to synagogues and their Minister of Religion.

1831 October, - 1833 December, EGYPTIAN - OTTOMAN WAR

Led by his son Ibrahim Pasha (1789-1848), Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) the Armenian born ruler of Egypt succeeded in conquering much of the middle east. With Constantinople now being threatened, the French and British forced him to cease his attack and eventually retreat. He controlled the holy land for almost a decade, and encouraged greater tolerance toward Christian pilgrims. This lead to the growth of Christian Zionism, and increased their influence on the future of Eretz Israel.

1832 - 1924 ARMIN VAMBERY (Hungary)

Linguist and Oriental traveler. In order to travel thoughout Persia, Armenia and Turkestan he took the name Rashid Effendi, assumed and successfully maintained the guise of a Sunni dervish, and traveled to places which no westerner had ever visited before. His book "Travels in Central Asia" became very popular. Vambery was a strong supporter of British expansionism and also served as foreign consultant to the Sultan of Turkey. In that position, although not a Zionist, he introduced Theodore Herzl to the Sultan in 1901.


Proposed that transplants of the retina could cure certain types of blindness.


Granted political rights to Jews.

1832 - 1904 ḤAYYIM MEDINI, ( Eretz Israel)

Scholar . He refused to accept the position of chief rabbi but did serve as the Rabbi of Hebron. He is chiefly remembered for his Sdei Chemed ( " Fields Of Beauty") , an encyclopedic collection of laws and decisions listed in alphabetical order. This served as the main indexing resource for responsa. It also included biographies of Jewish scholars, and a history of the land of Israel. One of his decisions which was slightly controversial, was permitting listening to a women singing sacred songs .

1832 ITALY

Giuseppe Mazzini organized a new society called Young Italy which many Jews joined. Their goal was to unify Italy. Although they were defeated by the French, one of his followers was Garibaldi, who later played an important role in unifying Italy.


Banker, and philanthropist. Actually born Montagu Samuel, his name was switched when he attended grade school. In addition to being a successful banker, he served in Parliament from 1885 for 15 years and was responsible for the adoption of the metric system (Weights and Measures Act). Montagu was actively involved in many projects helping the poor and founded the Jewish Workingmen's Club. He was a practicing Orthodox Jew and founded the Federation of Synagogues (1887) which united most of the smaller congregations.

1832 November 3, JOACHIM LELEWEL (Poland)

A non-Jewish Polish revolutionist and historian. He called on the Jewish people to join in a revolution. He was influenced by Bartlomiej Beniowski, a Jewish Polish revolutionary into calling on Poles to help Jews to establish a homeland in Eretz Israel.


Jews were allowed to be admitted to the Bar. Two years later in 1835 Francis Goldsmid became the first Jewish barrister.

1833 October 29, HESSE-CASSEL (Germany)

Was formally made part of the kingdom of Westphalia. All Jews, except for peddlers and petty traders, were granted civic equality. The other German kingdoms took nearly forty years to grant civic equality to their Jews.


Was founding on Mt Meron (Jarmak), by Israel Baeck (1797-1874) with ten Hassidic families from Safed. Unfortunately the fall of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (1789-1848) in 1840, brought an end to the settlement. Today its remains are known as Churvat Baeck “ Baecks ruins”

C. 1834 - 1904 JOSEF HAYYIM Al-Hakham (Baghdad, Persia)

Jewish leader, Halachist and Chief Rabbi of Baghdad aka Ben Ish Ḥai. Joseph Hayyim is still renown today as one of the premier Halachists of the Sephardic community. He authored about 60 books on all aspects of Judaism; specifically halacha (" Rav Pe'alim") and aggadah ("Ben Yehoyada and Benayahou") (the part of the Talmud which does not deal with religious law). His major work was Ben Ish Chai ("Son of Man (who) Lives"), which discusses the weekly portion of the Torah mixed with practical halacha and Kabbalah.

1834 July 15, THE INQUISITION (Spain)

Was finally abolished by the Queen Mother, Maria Christina, after nearly three and one half centuries.


Ibrahim Pasha sent in troops to quell a local revolt against his rule. Despite the fact that the Jews had played no part in the revolt (and had been assured of protection), the troops were allowed 6 hours in which to plunder and attack the community and Synagogues. Witnesses reported five girls raped and murdered as well as seven men killed.

1835 - 1909 CESARE LOMBROSO (Italy)

Father of modern criminology. His major work was entitled "Crime, Its Causes and Conditions". He also posited the theories that genius is a form of insanity and that criminal tendencies are hereditary. Lombroso later became interested in Zionism.

1835 DAVID SALOMON (1797-1873) (England)

Was the first Jew to be elected Sheriff of London. He was a successful banker who led the fight for Jewish equality in England. In 1855 he became Lord Mayor of London.

1835 CZAR NICHOLAS I (Russia)

Similar to Catherine II, Nicholas ordered a Ukase (decree) which restricted the Pale even further banning Jews from living in a 25 mile zone along the western front as well as the cities of Kiev, Nikolaev and Sevastopol.

1835 - 1917 MENDELE MOCHER SFORIM (Shalom Jacob Abramowitz) (Russia)

Distinguished author and Haskalist (advocate of the Enlightenment Movement). His work focused on the life and problems of the Jewish masses in Russia. Although an unabashed champion of the simple Jew, he strongly criticized jewish life in the small towns and ghetto. At the same time he had no patience for what he saw as the trend in the Haskala for assimilation. Though he wrote in both Hebrew and Yiddish, he was renowned as the forerunner of populist Yiddish literature.

1835 March, BAB EL HOTA (Jerusalem)

A number of courtyards and houses near the Lions gate were purchased by Jews. Unfortunately, a local blood libel in 1838, although dismissed, created an environment of fear. This coupled with the distance from other Jewish houses and the decrease in the Jewish population after the epidemic of 1838-9, caused it to be abandoned.


Reached Jerusalem. Bregman (1826-1896) a Russian financier and philanthropist tried a revolutionary model to help sustain Jewish immigrants. He analyzed in detail the possibilities for industry and trades in the holy land, with the idea that people should be able to provide for themselves and not rely on charity. This put him into direct conflict with Zvi Hirsch Lehren, who was in charge of the Halukah and whose view on the redemption of the land of Israel was anti-activist.

1836 LOUIS NAPOLEON (France)

Failed to capture Strasbourg and was exiled to America.


Published his Nineteen letters of Ben Uziel. This short work was written as an exchange of letters answering basic questions about Judaism. The Letters became very popular and was translated into many languages.

1836 THE FIRST HAKHAM BASHI (Ottoman Empire)

Moshe HaLevy (1872-1908), was appointed by Sultan Mahmud II. The title was taken from the words Hakhan (chacham) meaning sage and Bashi meaning head. Ostensibly he served as the chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire or of parts of it. Often the Hakham Bashi himself was not sufficiently learned to also serve as a Halachic authority. In addition to religious responsibilities, he was also in charge of collecting government taxes. Over the next few decades it grew in its importance, as Rabbis of higher stature assumed the office.

1836 - 1900 WILLIAM STEINITZ (Prague, Bohemia)

Known as the "Father of Modern Chess". Steinitz began as a brilliant talmudic scholar with an interest in mathematics. He won the world championship in Vienna by defeating Adolph Anderssen in 1866, and held on to the title until 1894 when he in turn was defeated by Emanuel Lasker. Steinitz is credited with developing the theory of chess that is based on science and math.


In an effort to improve the educational status of rabbis it decreed, "In accordance with the imperial ruling of 1820, starting on September 1, 1846, no district rabbi, religion instructor, or cantor should be approved unless he first completed with success a pedagogy course and philosophical studies. The decree also included Galicia but it had no lasting effect.

1836 November 5, POPE GREGORY XVI

Refused to stop the special cancellation tax which the Jews had to pay in lieu of running naked through the streets during the Saturnalia winter carnival. The race had been initiated by Pope Paul II in 1466. Pope Gregory XVI ruled: "It is not opportune to make any innovations" and affirmed its continuation.

1837 QUEEN VICTORIA (England)

Ascended the throne in England. During her reign there was a great increase in the number of Jews settling in England.

1837 - 1888 SAMUEL POLIAKOFF (Russia)

Railroad Baron. He built over 2500 Km of railroads as well as founding several banks. Though he refused to hire any Jews, he did, at the end of his life, play an active role in founding ORT and helped build the synagogue in St. Petersburg.

1837 1837 MOSES TITLEBAUM “aka Yismach Moshe” ( HUNGARY)

1837 MOSES TITLEBAUM “aka Yismach Moshe” ( HUNGARY) A leading Hassidic Rabbi, describing the troubles in Eretz Israel wrote “ It is the will of God. Not to go to the land of Israel.. Rather wait until the Messiah.” Titlebaum (1759 - 1841) was instrumental in bringing Hassidism to Hungary. He is known for his commentary Tefillah L’Moshe “A prayer to Moses” a commentary on psalms, a responsa Heishiv Moshe "Moses Responded", and Yismach Moshe "Moses Rejoiced” on the Torah.

1837 - 1907 BLAZER, ISAAC BEN MOSES ( Lithuania- Eretz -Israel)

Rabbi, educator, and leader of the mussar movement. While a student of Rabbi Israel Salanter, the founder of the movement, he worked a a painter, until Rabbi Salanter pressured him to stop. Blazer was appointed the Chief Rabbi of St. Petersburg at age 25, and was therefore also known as Rav Itzele Peterburger. He joined Rabbi Finkel (see 1849) in heading the Slobodka yeshiva. He settled in Jerusalem in 1904 and although he was very active in communal affairs, he refused to take a salary, except as a simple clerk. He published Pri Yitzchat (" Fruit of Isaac" ) a responsa , and Salanter's letters in Or Yisrael ("The Light of Israel").

1837 January 1, GALILEE EARTHQUAKE (Eretz Israel)

Registering approximately 6.5 (in today's terms) killed an estimated two thousand Jews perished mainly in Safed and Tiberius . Numerous monuments and archaeological sites were damaged. The Alsheich synagogue and the southern wall (containing the torah scrolls) of the Abuhav Synagogue were not affected. This together with the attacks the following year (see 1838), led many of the residents chose to resettle to Jerusalem and Hebron rather than rebuild. This led to the Jews becoming the largest ethnic population in Jerusalem within a decade.


Was published by Isaac Leeser in the USA.

1838 - 1875 GEORGE BIZET (Paris, France)

Composer of the opera "Carmen". He studied under Jacques Halevy (composer of "La Juive") and married his daughter.


Was published by Lord Alexander Lindsay (1821-1880) provided the first proposal by a major politician to resettle Jews in Palestine: The soil of "Palestine still enjoys her sabbaths, and only waits for the return of her banished children.

1838 - 1933 (24 Elul 5693) ISRAEL MEIR HACOHEN - THE CHOFETZ CHAIM (Hafetz Hayyim) (Radin, Poland)

A prominent talmudic leader and author, he wrote commentaries on the Sifra and Mussar. In all, he composed over thirty works on Jewish ethics and laws, especially concentrating on the need to beware of slandering or "promoting a bad name". His Magnum Opus was the Mishna B'rurah, a guide to Jewish law in modern times. Earning his living as a teacher and later founding a yeshiva, he consistently refused a rabbinical position. This was partly based on his belief that "he who hates gifts shall live".


Was established by Rebecca Graetz. Classes opened a month later on March 4, with six teachers and sixty students. It became the longest running Jewish Sunday school in American history. Only in 1993 did it merge with another school.rnrn

1838 - 1937 SARAH FRANKEL STERNBERG (Chenciny, Poland)

Religious leader who took over for her husband Hayyim Samuel Sternberg a his death. Hayyim Samuel Sternberg was Hasidic leader and student of the "Seer of Lublin".

1838 - 1912 YOEL MOSHE SALOMON (Eretz-Israel)

Printer, publisher, visionary and communal leader. Although he excelled in Talmudic studies and was ordained as a Rabbi he decided to study printing. Salomon began the first Hebrew language newspaper Ha Levanon but was forced to close it under pressure by some in the orthodox community. He helped establish new neighborhoods in Jerusalem including Nahalat Shiva and Sha'arei Hesed . Salomon believed in the importance of settling the land and helped form the Hevrat Yishuv Eretz Israel. He consulted with the Templers on agricultural grafting, and in 1878 helped found Petah Tikva.


Robinson a biblical scholar was the first to identify the Siloam pool and the bridge, which led to the temple mount known today as Robinson's arch. He used the Arab names of villages to identify old biblical sites, and is considered the founder of biblical archeology.

1838 June 30, SWEDEN

The Swedish government passed a law abolishing discrimination against Jews. Unfortunately, this law was repealed due to public objections. Another 30 years were to pass before Jews were given the right to vote.


The Jewish community was attacked by Druze rebels. Ostensibly fighting against Ibrahim Pasha (see 1831), they attacked and defeated the Egyptian garrison outside Safed. The Jewish community was then singled out for 3 days of pillage.

1838 July 18, POPE GREGORY XVI

Criticized the lack of measures against Jews in recent years."The unfortunate political events… have produced ... the failure to observe Apostolic Constitutions and the other Edicts regarding the Jews."


Upon orders of the British police, the Yemenite residents decided to leave the village. Three days later, they were evacuated "for their own protection". Although the British administration promised that they would return as soon as the riots ended, they did not keep their promise.

1839 CLOTHES TAXÒ (Lithuania)

A special Jewish clothes tax was imposed in order to encourage Jews to forgo traditional dress. The right to wear a kippa cost five rubles a year.


Organized by Montefiore, it found , 6,408 people Jews living in the country. This differed with the figure of 9,000 the 9,000 Jews reported by the British consul at the same time.

1839 - 1915 (11 Elul 5675) ISAAC JACOB REINES (Belarus-Lithuania)

Founder of the Mizrachi Religious Zionist Movement. He founded an experimental yeshiva in which rabbis were trained to expound the Talmud and preach in Russian. The government closed it four years later. He became the rabbi in Lida and joined the Zionist movement in 1898. Reines was a strong backer of Herzl, even supporting his Uganda plan. His Mizrachi Movement was the first official religious Zionist party.


Moses Montefiore proposed to Mohammed Ali (1769-1849) the setting up of Jewish agricultural settlement. He was supported by Rabbi Mordechai Tsoref Salomon (1812-1866) of Jerusalem who wished to establish a place for those “less gifted at study”, and where they could practice the agricultural “laws of the land”. There was strong opposition by sectors of the Perushim (descendants of the disciples of the Vilna Gaon) community. Ali turned down the proposal. Tsoref was the father of Yoel Moshe Solomon who helped create the Nakhalat Shiv'a ("the homestead of the seven") neighborhood (see Yoel Moshe Solomon).


Influenced by other anti-Jewish riots under Mohammad Shah Qajar (1808-1848), the local community attacked the Jewish quarter. The synagogue was destroyed, over 30 Jews were killed and the rest of the community was threatened with annihilation. Moslem leaders offered to prevent further riots on condition that the Jews convert, which they did. The Jews became known as jadīd al-Islām (Ar.) by Muslims and as /i> Mashhadis by themselves. In secret they continued to practice Judaism. Years later over than two-thirds of them left Mashad for Khurasan and Afghanistan, where they openly returned to Judaism


Was sent by leaders in the Perushim and Sephardic communities. In it, they supported agricultural work by Jews. Lehren (see 1784) the director of the Halukah was against it, believing that Jews should concentrate on study, and that the land is supposed to remain desolate until the coming of the Messiah.

1839 November 8, SULTAN ABD Al-MAJID 1823-1861 (Turkey)

Issued his declaration of rights known as the Hatt-i-Sherif. These new regulations were part of what was known as the Tanzimat ("reforms") which guaranteed equality of rights, security, and military service for all non-Muslim citizens.

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