C. 1760 - 1820 HAYYIM FARHI ( Syria- Eretz Israel)
AKA El Mu'Allim "The teacher", for his considerable learning. He was asked to serve Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar the governor of Sidon (r.1776-1804) as his chief advisor. Farhi was the defacto ruler of Acre, and did his best to interceded for fellow Jews when possible. He defended Acre against Napoleon in 1799. He lost his eye, part of his nose, and ear during one of Al Jazzars infamous rages. Farhi was the mentor to Abdullah Pasha who assassinated him.. His body was tossed into the sea and all his assets confiscated by Abdulla (see 1821).
1760 October 23, ENGLISH PRAYER BOOK
The first English translation of the Prayer book (Siddur) was published in England.
1760 December 14, BOARD OF DEPUTIES OF BRITISH JEWS (England)
Was founded. It is the oldest Jewish communal organization in Great Britain. All Jews, whether Ashkenazi or Sephardi (and later the Reform) could elect their deputies, who would in turn represent the entire community. Membership was originally based on synagogues, but much later other organizations were added.
1761 - 1837 (13 Tishrei 5598) AKIVA EGER (EIGER) (Posen, Germany)
Renowned halachic and talmudic scholar, Eger was one of the leading talmudists in the first half of the nineteenth century and a strong opponent of the Reform movement. His devotion to the sick, at risk to his own life during a cholera epidemic, earned him the recognition of Frederick William III of Prussia.
1761 March 4, JEWS EXPELLED FROM LUBECK (Germany)
At the behest of the guilds. The following year only one Jew was allowed to live in Lubeck, and this only after paying a heavy fee. As far back as the 16th century (except for a few years during Napoleons time (1810), Jewish residence was for the most part prohibited. This didnâ€™t change until the revolution of 1848.
1762 CARPENTRAS (FRANCE)
Semé the young son of the local Rabbi Elijah Crémieu, was forcibly baptized. Despite appeals to Pope Clement XIII, he was not returned to his family. Carpentras is known for having the oldest active synagogue France.
1762 - 1839 (25 Tishrei 5600) MOSES SOFER SCHREIBER (The Chatam Sofer) (Pressburg, Hungary)
Rabbi, teacher and halachic authority. A strict adversary to Moses Mendelssohn, he was opposed to any changes made to education or tradition, yet did believe that Jews should study useful trades and agriculture. Sofer was strong supporter of rigid orthodoxy whose influence is still felt today. He was true to his motto â€śHe-á¸Ąadash asur min ha-Torah!â€ť (Innovation is forbidden as a biblical prohibition!). Sofer wrote a voluminous collection of responsa called Chidushai Teshuvot Moshe Sofer (Novella and Responsa of Moses Sofer). It was divided into four parts containing 1377 responsa. He composed poetry, and wrote a diary of the Napoleonic siege of Pressburg from a religious perspective.rnrn
1762 March 11, RHODE ISLAND (North American Colonies)
Although considered more liberal than other states, and despite the fact that a few Jews had previously been granted citizenship, the court refused to grant it to Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer, stating that "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony". Lopez was granted citizenship by Massachusetts and the sentence "upon the true faith of a Christian" was excluded from the oath. Lopez was probably the first Jew to be granted citizenship in Massachusetts.
1762 December 4, CATHERINE II (1729-1796) (Russia)
Issued a proclamation allowing all foreigners to travel and to settle in Russia - “Kromye Zhydov ("except the Jews"), Within 8 years Russia acquired hundreds of thousands of Jews due to the partition of Poland.
1763 June 4, EZEKIEL SOLOMONS (North American Colonies)
After opening a trading post two years earlier, he was taken prisoner by the Indians. During this uprising in the Mackinac territory that was known as "Pontiac's conspiracy" at least three other Jewish traders were captured and ransomed. This territory later became the state of Michigan.
1763 December 2, CONGREGATION YESHUAT YISRAEL (Newport, Rhode Island, USA)
Dedicated its synagogue, now known as the Touro synagogue, after its first hazzan, Isaac Touro. Built with the help of Isaac Hart, and designed by Peter Harrison, it is the oldest synagogue still standing in the United States.
1764 - 1847 HENRIETTA HERZ (Germany)
One of Mendelssohn's brightest followers. Her home became the meeting place (salon) of the most distinguished intellectuals. She was baptized after her mother's death.
1764 TRAVELS AMONG JEWS AND GENTILES
Aka Rayz beshraybung was published by Abraham Levi (1702- 1785). The travelogue written in Yiddish highlighted his visits to Poland Italy , Austria, Hungary, and Germany. He described the way of life and population of each city he visited.rn
1764 IMMIGRATION OF HASIDIM TO TIBERIAS
Led by Rabbi Menahem Mendel of Peremyshlyany (b. 1728). He was accompanied by Nahman of Horodenka the paternal grandfather of Nahman of Breslav. This is the first organized Hasidic Aliyah, and began a period of a immigration which would expand to over 300 people over the next number of years.
1764 June 1, STANISLAV PONIATOVSKY (Poland)
The last King of Poland, with the backing of the Polish Sejm, abolished the Council of the Four Lands and imposed a poll tax (see 1520).
1764 July 5, - 1876 DANIEL MENDOZA (England)
Known as the "father of scientific boxing". Mendoza was proud of his Jewish heritage and billed himself as "Mendoza the Jew". He became one of England's greatest boxing champions and the first boxer to win the patronage of the Prince of Wales.
1765 - 1809 BEREK JOSELEWICZ (Poland)
Colonel of the Polish armed forces. Joselewicz joined Kosciuszko in the Polish uprising and the Napoleonic Wars. He believed in the importance of having Jews take part in the revolution. Together with Joseph Aronowicz, they received permission from Kosciuszko to establish a Jewish Unit. His famous call in Yiddish for support elicited hundreds of volunteers. Five hundred were eventually accepted, many of whom died in the insurrection.He died in a Calvary charge in the war against Austria near the city of Kotzk.
1765 October 27, PORTUGAL
The last "public" Auto da Fe (Act of Faith) was held. The latest recorded Auto da Fe in Portugal was held in 1791 and the last in Valencia, Spain was held in 1826.
1766 - 1850 AARON (ALBERT) ALEXANDRE (Germany-England)
Chess master and author of Encyclopedie des Echecs (1837) which explains all the rules of the game in four languages. In another book entitled Collection des Plus Beux problems d'Echecs he collected over 2000 chess problems and their answers.
1766 - 1828 AARON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI (Horwitz) OF STRASHELYE. ( Lithuania)
Rabbi and Hassidic leader .Although a dedicated follower of Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745), he broke with his son Dov Ber (the Mittler Rebbe) over ecstatic expression during prayer. He was the author of Sha'are Abodah (The Gates of Worship) and favored unrestricted enthusiasm as opposed to Dov Ber who believed that enthusiasm should rely on contemplation and understanding . Although his son Hayyim Raphael tried to continue with his legacy, after his death most of his Hassidim returned to the main Chabad movement.
1766 DOV BER (The Maggid) OF MEZHIRECH (d.19 kislev 1772)
Was recognized as the successor of the Baal Shem Tov who had died six years earlier. Dov Ber, a talmudic scholar and kabbalist, is credited with organizing Hasidism as a movement. Among his ideas was the role of the Tzaddik as a holy leader and medium between man and God, as well as Deveikut (communion with God) in all actions.
1766 PRAYERS FOR SABBATH, ROSH-HASHANAH, AND KIPPUR
The first complete siddur (prayer book) in English was published by Isaac Pinto. Pinto (1720-1791), who also translated it from the Hebrew, was a learned merchant who had come from the west indies in 1751. He was a member of Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, and active in supporting the colonial cause against the British.
1768 ISHAQ AL-YAHUDI ( Egypt)
The Jewish Ottoman appointed tax collector, was arrested, fined 40,000 gold pieces, and then murdered by Ali Bey al-Kabir. Ali Bey (1728-1773) was a Mamluk leader who rebelled against the Ottoman rule. Al-Yahudi’s death signaled the end of Jews serving in governmental positions in Egypt, being mostly replaced by Syrian Catholics. It also marked the decline of the position of Jewish community in general.
1768 - 1828 ISRAEL JACOBSON (Germany)
The "Father of Reform", he was also the financial agent of Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia. He organized the first Reform service and later founded the first Reform Temple with the help of Jacob Herz Beer. Jacobson was a strong believer in inter-racial association, and in 1801 established a school for Jewish and Christian children in the Herz mountains. The Reform movement was also known as the "Liberal" or "Progressive" movement. It developed partly out of the political and cultural emancipation of Jews in Western Europe. Although Jacobson sought a basis for his ideas in traditional Judaism, the Reform movement soon sought to distance itself from Orthodoxy, nationalism, and the authority of the written and Oral Law and concentrate on the "universal" aspects of Judaism. (See 1806, 1810, 1885)
1768 June 18, HAIDAMAK MASSACRES (Ukraine)
Reached Uman. The peasant serfs and Cossacks rioted much in the same vein as Chemielnicki one hundred and twenty years earlier. At Uman, the Poles and Jews defended the city together under the Polish commander, Ivan Gonta. The next day, convinced by Zheleznyak the Polish revolutionary that only the Jews would be attacked, Gonta allowed the fortified city to be entered without a fight. Approximately 8000 Jews were killed, many of them trying to defend themselves near the synagogue. As soon as the Jews were all massacred, the Haidamaks (the paramilitary bands) began to kill the Poles. Although the Haidamacks began in the 1730's, the main rioting was during the years 1734, 1750 and 1768. It is estimated that during these years 20,000 Jews were killed. The Haidamaks became part of the Ukrainian national movement and are celebrated in folklore and literature.
1769 MORDECAI MOSES MORDECAI (USA)
Became the first Jew to farm in Lancaster Pennsylvania, in what was known then as “ the West”.