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C. 1400 ISAAC ABOHAB I(Spain)

Scholar and author of Menorat ha-Maor ("Candlestick of Light") a collection of Aggadot arranged according to the subject. The book published in more than 70 editions and in at least 5 languages, remains popular today. His objective was to return the knowledge of the Aggadah or Midrashic lore to the common people. He also wrote Aron ha-'Edut ("The Ark of the Testimony") tracing ritual laws and Shulḥan ha-Panim ("Table of the Showbread").

1400 - 1480 ISRAEL BRUNA (Germany)

Rabbi and Halachic scholar, aka Mahari Bruna, the Hebrew acronym for "Our Teacher, the Rabbi, Israel Bruna". He studied under Israel Isserlin, and is known for his work Teshuvot Mahari Bruna which is one of the important Ashkenazi Halachic resources. Bruna was jailed on a trumped up ritual murder charge by an Jewish apostate Hans Vagol, but was declared innocent by both Frederick III, as well King Ladislav of Bohemia. Vagol later admitted to the perjury.

C. 1400 Yomtov Lippmann ben Shlomo Mühlhausen (Bohemia)

Wrote his Sefer ha-Nitsachon (“Book of Victory”) which served as a defense against Christianity. He survived the massacre in Prague (see 1389). Mühlhausen (d.1421) traveled throughout Bohemia trying to strengthen the local communities, as well as their religious knowledge and understanding.

1400 July 27, KING LADISLAS (Naples, Italy)

Offered the Jews a charter which would give them economic equality.

1402 BANI ISRAEEL (western Africa)

In a manuscript known as the Tarikh al-fattash a Jewish tribe is mentioned which ruled in Tirdirma near the Niger River. They were said to have had over 300 wells and 1500 soldiers. They were known as the Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan.

C. 1403 - 1450 MIRIAM LURIA (SPIRA) (Germany)

Teacher and Talmudic scholar. She was the daughter of Solomon Spira (c. 1375c. 1453) Known as Rabbanit Miriam she taught at a yeshiva in Italy, and gave public lectures on Halachah. It is said that " because of her beauty", she would teach Talmud to some of the most qualified young men from behind a curtain, so that they would not be distracted. Miriam Luria was the grandmother of Solomon Luria ( Maharshal 1510-1573).

1407 October 26, CRACOW ACCUSATIONS (Poland)

One of the first blood libels in Poland. The Jews tried to defend themselves and were forced to take refuge in the Church of St. Anne, which was surrounded and then set afire. Any children left alive were forcibly baptized.

1408 GRODNO (Lithuania)

Jews received a renewed "Bill of Rights" granting them the opportunity to work as tradesmen and framers.

1408 October 25, COUNCIL OF REGENCY (Castile/Leon, Spain)

Under the inspiration of the apostate Paul de Santa Maria, the council reinstituted all of the anti-Jewish legislation of Alfonso the Wise (1252-1284).

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