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Christians were officially forbidden, throughout Western Europe to live in Jewish homes. As with many Church council declarations, its implementation depended on external factors and location.

1050 - C. 1120 MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS (Lucca, Italy - Mainz)

Scholar and poet. He is also known as Meshulan the Great". He wrote a commentary on Ethics of the Fathers, and numerous responsa some of which were dedicated to disproving Karaite teachings. One of these gave permission to keep a fire going on over the Sabbath . Some of his peyutim, including those for the day of atonement are still used today.

1054 FINAL BREAK (Italy, Byzantine Empire)

Between the Churches of Rome and Constantinople. This was facilitated by the Norman conquest of Southern Italy with the backing of the Pope. (Southern Italy had been under the influence of the Eastern Empire.) This also marked the end of Byzantine rule in Italy, which had focused on the Empire rather than on the Pope. Clergy there were also allowed to marry, which gave them closer ties with society.

1054 AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL (Capua, Italy)

Completed a 200 year chronicle of his family in southern Italy. This work called Migilat Yuchasin (The Scroll of Genealogy) is better known as Migilat Achimaz (The Chronicle of Ahimaaz). The entire chronicle was written in rhymed Hebrew prose with an extensive vocabulary. This work presents a remarkable window into Jewish life at that time. The Chronicle was found by accident in a Spanish library and published in 1895.

1055 - 1130 ISAAC BEN ASHER HALEVI (The Rivah) (Germany)

Called the "Father of the German Tosafists". He studied briefly under Rashi, and was the only outstanding German teacher to survive the First Crusade. Upon his death there was no one of standing to take his place and the schools of Worms and the Rhineland were surpassed by those further south. It was said of him that he went over his lessons four times before he would teach them.

1056 - 1147 ALMORAVIDE DYNASTY (Spain)

A Berber Moslem tribe, they were called to Spain by Abbad III of Seville to help fight against the Christians. They soon turned against the Spanish Moors and annexed Moslem Spain, with the exception of Toledo and Saragossa. The Almoravides were unstable at best. Their rule was generally puritanical, and they showed disdain for the Moslem courts in Spain. Many Jews fled to Christian Spain.

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