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1020 REGENSBURG (Ratisbon) (Bavaria, Germany)

The oldest Jewish quarter in Germany was established.


Riots ensued after Jews were accused of causing the earthquake by their alleged denigration of the cross. Pope Benedict VIII ordered the beheading (others say burning) of 20 Jews for causing the disaster, and the resulting plague.

1021 - 1069 SOLOMON IBN GABIROL (Avicebron) (Malaga)

Messianic poet and philosopher whose "Naale" and other works are included in the Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) liturgy. His book of philosophy, Fountain of Life (Arabic), conceived of the universe as the embodiment of divine will. The famous medieval theological philosophers John Duns Scotus (1265-1308) and Albertus Magnus (1206-1280), not knowing he was Jewish, used his texts. Most Jewish scholars rejected his theories of neo-Platonism and some, including Maimonides, considered them almost Pantheic. His personal life was harsh: orphaned at an early age, he suffered bitter poverty and deprivation.

1024 - 1029 BEDOUIN REVOLT (Eretz Israel)

Was led by Hassan ibn Mufarrij of the al-Jarrah clan, against Anushtakin al-Dizbari the Fatamid governor. Many Jews especial in the Ramla and Jerusalem area were killed or forced to pay exorbitant ransoms, leading to the decline of the Jewish population(see 1033).

1027 BARCELONA (Spain)

A Jew accused of committing adultery with a Christian woman had his property confiscated. He agreed to convert, and the charge against him was dropped.

1028 RABBI ELIEZER BEN ISAAC (the Great) (Mayence, Germany)

Took over the Academy of Mayence after the death of Rabbenu Gershom. Hundreds of students flocked to his school, many of whom became the leaders of the next generation. Two of them, Isaac ben Judah of Mayence and Isaac ben Eliezer Halevi of Worms, were Rashi's teachers. R' Eliezer and his colleague Jacob ben Yakar headed the Yeshiva. He is also the author of Orchot Chayim.

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