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1010 LIMOGES (France)

Although the Capetian dynasty had been in power in France for twenty-three years, they provided no security for Jews. In Limoges, Bishop Alduin gave them the option of baptism or exile. The Jews sent Jacob bar Yukutiel to petition the Pope. One of his sons was forced to remain behind as a hostage to the bishop, while the rest went with him to Rome. He persuaded the Pope to send an envoy to the area with a papal order "not to kill, injure or rob Jews, nor to deprive them of their religion."

1010 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Caliph al-Hakim of Egypt destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The French Christian "Historian" Raoul Glaber (who had previously recorded that the Jews were the "Habitual ally of the Devil") claimed that the Jews were responsible for this. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.

1011 December 31, FUSTAT (Egypt)

A mob attacked Jews returning from a funeral. Twenty-three Jewish leaders were taken prisoner. They were going to be executed, but their release was ordered by the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim (996-1020), even though he definitely was not a friend of the Jews.

1011 December 31, NEAR RIOTS IN EGYPT

A local mob attacked a Jewish funeral procession, arresting 23 people and threatening them with death. The incident was brought to the attention to the Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah “ The Mad Caliph” who had previous persecuted the Jews. He ordered them release and their possessions returned. The Jews in gratitude instituted a holiday on the fifth of the month of Shevat to honor the Caliph.

1012 COLOGNE (Koeln, Germany)

A synagogue was built. The Jewish presence in Cologne probably dates back to its becoming a Roman city in the first century. The synagogue, after being destroyed three times, was eventually turned into a church (1424). Allied bombing in World War II exposed the foundations and a genizah cellar where prayer books, sacred writings and even documents were placed.


Forbade Jews to marry Christians, own slaves, or work on Sunday. Despite the Council, no overtly anti-Jewish measures were imposed.

1012 MAGDEBURG (Germany)

Jews participated in the funeral of Archbishop Walthad, who was seen as a friend of the Jews.

1012 MAYENCE (Germany)

Emperor Henry II expelled the Jews, probably in reaction to an anti-Christian pamphlet which was produced by a new convert to Judaism, Wecelin (a former Cleric and Deacon). The Jews were allowed to return the following year.


Broke out between Arabs and Berbers. This resulted in the first Jewish massacre in Cordova in April 1014, and the subsequent decline of the population and importance of the community. An aristocratic family ruled Cordova, who did not consider Jews indispensable. Consequently, the Jews in Cordova began to suffer harassment. Samuel Hanagid was forced to flee to Malaga.

1013 (10 Iyar 4863) - 1103 ISAAC ALFASI (Fez, Morocco)

Also known as the "RIF", compiled the first codification of Jewish law, entitled Sefer Halachot. It still appears today in every volume of the Talmud. Joseph Caro later used it as a basis for his work. Sefer Halachot was the most important codex until Maimonides' Mishna Torah. Alfasi was 25 years old when Hai Gaon died. He was called Gaon by many authorities and his death marked the very end of the Geonic Period (since 589), although there are others who say that the Geonic Period ended with the death of Hai Gaon (1038). His students included Judah Halevi and Josef ibn Migash.


Was destroyed by Matislav/Mstislav I of (Kiev)Russia. Some of the Khazars converted, and other communities gradually absorbed the rest.

1017 LEON (Christian Kingdom in Spain)

Alfonso V set a code of laws known as the Fuero of Leon. This charter encouraged the settlement of Jews and others in his lands, granting them all equality.

1018 EASTER, TOULOUSE (France)

According to a Christian tradition called "Colaphisation," a Jew had to present himself to the local priest to receive a blow to his face. Hugues, the local Chaplain, hit the unfortunate victim so hard that "his brains and eyes...spilled to the earth". Only in the 12th century did the Jews succeed in paying a fine in remuneration instead of going through the ceremony.

1018 KIEV (Russia)

During the occupation by the Polish king, Boleslav the Bold, the Jews were attacked and robbed by soldiers. This marks one of the earliest reports of a permanent Jewish presence in Kiev.

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