1860 May 17, ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE (Kol Yisrael Haverim) (France)
Was launched by a group of French Jews under the direction of Adolphe Cremieux. It was designed to defend Jewish rights and to establish modern Jewish educational facilities throughout the world. The Alliance is considered to be the first modern Jewish organization. It became the prototype of other organizations of its kind. The catalyst for its creation was the Damascus Affair in 1840, the Mortara Case in 1858, and the growing need to protect Jews on an international basis. The Franco-Prussian War diminished its universality and separate organizations were formed in Germany and England.
1938 December 2, Kindertransport (England)
The first children's transport arrived in Harwich, Great Britain bringing about 200 children from a Jewish orphanage in Berlin. After a strong appeal by the British Jewish Refugee Committee, the British government had decided to allow in unaccompanied refugee children. Almost 10,000 Jewish children succeeded in getting to Britain. The last train arrived two days before the war started. A similar appeal to allow Jewish children into Eretz Israel was rejected.
1947 January 31, KOL YERUSHALAYIM (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel)
Broadcasted a Mandatory government announcement that due to the disturbances, it was evacuating all non-essential personnel, including women and children. In addition, the British army began to build "security zones" which became know as "Bevingrads", British army enclaves (named for Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin), in the three major cities.
1945 March 9, KOL YISRAEL (The Voice of Israel) (Eretz Israel)
Began its clandestine broadcasts. Although the Haganah had tried broadcasting in March of 1940, it only lasted a few months. This time the Haganah was prepared, and despite the best British efforts they never succeeded in closing down the transmitters.
1938 November 9, KRISTALLNACHT (Germany)
Goebbels called vom Rath's murder "a Jewish conspiracy" and a nation-wide pogrom was organized by the German government. Fifty thousand Jews were arrested and taken to concentration camps, five hundred synagogues were destroyed and the Jewish community of Germany was forced to pay one billion reichmarks ($400,000,000) for the damage.
1163 KAIFENG (China)
A synagogue was built. There are records of Jews there in 960 when it was capital of the Song dynasty and known as known as Bianliang.
1424 KAIFENG (China)
Jewish physician Y'en Ch'eng was given the surname "Chao" as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became one of the leading Chinese Jewish families.
940 KAIROVAN (Tunisia)
Hananel ben Hushiel and Nissim ben Jacob, native Talmudists, sought to bridge the gap between talmudic teachings and daily life. They accomplished this by using both the Jerusalem and Babylonian versions of the Talmud.
1826 March 6, KAISER FRANCIS II (Austria)
In reaction to the immigration of Jews to Eretz Israel, the Austro-Hungarian Kaiser (and last holy Roman Emperor ) passed a law forbidding secret immigration or the removal of funds from the empire.
1896 April 15, KAISER WILHELM II APPROACHED REGARDING THE ZIONIST IDEA
William Hechler, the Anglican minister who befriended Herzl, met with his friend the Grand Duke Frederick I of Baden, ( the Kaisers’ uncle) and the Kaiser himself. He broached the idea of restoration of the Jews to their historic homeland. This led to a meeting between Herzl, the grand duke and Hechler on April 23, which in turn led to the later historic meetings between Herzl and the Kaiser.
1892 KAISER WILHELM II (1859-1941) (Germany)
Fired Adolph Stoecker for excessive socialism, but not for his anti-Semitism. Stoecker's Christian Socialist Party fell along with him, although anti-Semitism continued to be considered respectable.
1898 October 28, KAISER WILLIAM II (Germany)
Visited Eretz Israel and met with Herzl. Herzl was disappointed by the lack of commitment on the part of the Kaiser. Much of this was due to the opposition to the Zionist enterprise of German liberal Jews, bankers, and his foreign minister, Bernhard von Buelow.
1794 - 1925 KAJAR DYNASTY (Persia)
A fanatical Shiite dynasty which continued the policy of declaring non-Moslem's impure and worthy of persecution. Many Jewish communities were either driven out (Tabriz c. 1797) or forcibly converted (Mashhad 1839). Eventually (in the 1860's) European Jews, hearing about their difficulties, began to exert international pressure to alleviate their plight.
C. 1170 KALISZ (Poland)
Probably the oldest Jewish community in Poland. Jews were invited there by Mieszko III the Oldster,
prince of Great Poland (1127-1202) and worked as minters (see 1264).
1286 - 1328 KALONYMOS BEN KALONYMOS (Provence)
A prolific writer and translator, best known for his poetry. He was especially noted for his translations of Arabic scientific works into Hebrew.
1889 - 1943 KALONYMUS KALMAN SHAPIRA ( Szapiro) (Piaseczno, Poland)
Rabbi, community leader, and innovative educator. In his Chovat haTalmidim (â€śThe Studentsâ€™ Responsibilityâ€ť), he promoted active participation by the students in their studies. Rabbi Shapira argued that a child must be imbued â€świth a vision of his own potential greatnessâ€ť and be enlisted â€śas an active participant in his own development. His often forthright Sermons during the holocaust also dealt with belief in times of annihilation. They were preserved in a canister and published in 1960 as Eish Kodesh (" Holy Fire").
1824 - 1904 KALONYMUS ZE'EV WISSOTZKY (Russia)
Merchant and philanthropist. Wissotzky was one of the earliest supporters of the Zionist movement. He established a successful tea house which still bears his name. Upon his death, he left his share of the business (one million Rubles) to charity, part of which went to found the Technion in Haifa.
825 KARAITES (Babylon)
Developed into sects, each choosing its own interpretation of the Bible. They included the Ukbarites, Tiflisites and Malik al Ramli. These sects split the Karaite movement even further.
1939 January 5, KARAITES (Germany)
Were declared not Jewish by the Reich’s Department for Genealogical Research. Although it is estimated that some12,000 Karaites were saved bu this ruling, many more were murdered by Nazi Einsatzgruppe including at Baby Yar ( see September 29 1941).
1881 KARL EUGEN DUEHRING (Berlin)
German economist and philosopher, published Die Judenfrage (The Jewish question). Duehring (1833–1921) was one of the initial proponents of modern racial antisemitism, based on anthropology rather than religion. He influenced the Nazi Alfred Rosenberg who borrowed some of his ideas in his book Die Spur des Juden im Wandel der Zeiten (The Track of the Jews Through the Ages) (1920).
1804 - 1851 KARL GUSTAV JACOBI (Germany)
Mathematician, known especially for his contributions in the fields of algebra, and rational mechanics, as well as his theory of elliptic functions. In 1824 he converted to Christianity in order to obtain a position as professor of mathematics at Konigsberg, and later at the University of Berlin.
1868 - 1943 KARL LANDSTEINER (Austria)
Physiologist who discovered that there are four types of human blood. He received the Nobel Prize in medicine 1930.
1844 - 1910 KARL LUEGER (Austria)
Founder of an anti-Semitic Austrian Catholic party, the Christian Social Party (in 1893). He became mayor of Vienna in 1897 (see 1897) and was a strong supporter of Christian Socialism. When asked why some of his friends are Jews he replied “ I decide who is a Jew”. Although later praised by Hitler. in Mein Kamph, in reality during his administration, the Jews of Vienna did not suffer more than anywhere else in Europe at the time
1818 May 5, - 1883 KARL MARX (Father of Communism)(Germany)
Converted to Protestantism as a child. He embraced Lutheran anti-Judaism and charged that the basis for Judaism is greed and that social emancipation could only be accomplished by freeing society from commercialism, which was associated with Jews. Although many Jews embraced Communism as a panacea, many fled to the haven of socialism or capitalism. Still, the Capitalists call the Jews Communists and vice versa. Marx's theories were published under the title Das Kapital in 1867.
652 KA‘AB AL-AHBĀR ( Yemen -Syria)
Died. He is the most famous of the Jewish converts to Islam and legend has it that he showed Omar where on the temple mount he should build his mosque. He is said to have told Omar that everything is written in the Torah, and predicted the date of Omar's death. In Moslem literature he is praised by some, and condemned by other as a false convert.
1853 KEREM AVRAHAM ("Abraham's Vineyard")
Was purchased by James Finn (1806-1872) the British council in Jerusalem . Its purpose was to train Jews in agriculture and other trades so as to become financial independent of the Halukah system. Today it is a neighborhood in the center of Jerusalem, near Geulah.
1920 July 27, KEREN HAYESOD (Eretz Israel Foundation Fund) (England-Eretz Israel)
Was created in London at the London Zionist Conference for education, absorption and the development of rural settlements in Eretz Israel. Chaim Weizmann was elected president of the World Zionist Organization.
1917 July 22, KERENSKY
The Jewish former Minister of War became the premier of Russia. After the Czar abdicated, he took over the Russian government and formed a liberal provisional government, which lasted four months. Although well intentioned, he was not a strong leader and couldn't negotiate between the subversive forces on the right and left.
1946 June 19, KFAR GILADI (Eretz Israel)
In a raid on the kibbutz, twelve members were injured while offering passive resistance. When hundreds of nearby residents tried to reach the kibbutz, the British opened fire, killing three and wounding six. In all, during the two days of confrontation, four Jews were killed, eighteen injured and more than 100 arrested.
Obadiah, the leader or Khaqan of the Khazars, adopted rabbinic Judaism two generations after their conversion.
Svyatoslav I, ruler of the Kievian Russians, defeated the Khazars and temporarily occupied their capital. Some historians believe that the Khazars then converted to Islam in order to obtain an alliance with their Moslems neighbors, although there is evidence of a continued Khazar kingdom for another 50 years.
540 KHOSROW I (Syria)
Destroyed Antioch but took care to protect the rights of Christian and Jewish minorities.
1244 July 15, KHWARIZMI TURKS
Conquer Jerusalem. Originating in Persia, they raised the city leaving less than 2,000 people alive. It would remain a small town for the next 300 years
1943 April 28, KIBBUTZ KFAR ETZION (Eretz Israel)
Was set up in the Judean mountains strategically placed off the main road from Hebron to Jerusalem. It was built on the site of Migdal Eder, which had been abandoned in 1929. Soon it was joined by Kibbutz Masuot Yitzchak, Ein Tzurim and Revadim, forming what was known as the Etzion Block.
1948 May 12, KIBBUTZ KFAR ETZION (Gush Etzion, Eretz Israel)
Fell to Arab irregular forces and the Jordan legion. Most of the wounded were killed when one of the Arabs threw a grenade into the bunker where they were being kept. Two days later the last three settlements in the Gush were forced to surrender.
1948 March 28, KIBBUTZ YEHIAM (Western Galilee, Eretz Israel)
A haganah convoy led by 22 year old Ben Ami Pachter was sent to reinforce the kibbutz which had been holding out against constant Arab attacks. The convoy was ambushed near Kabri. All of the forty-seven killed, were between the ages of sixteen and twenty-two including one women.
1946 July 4, KIELCE POGROM (Southern Poland)
Claimed 42 Jewish lives. Kielce had a history of Jewish settlement (depending on expulsion orders) of over 500 years. Prior to World War II, there were over 25,000 Jews living there. After the war approximately 200 survivors returned. The riots broke out after a nine year old boy told the head of the local militia that the Jews had held him captive for two days in a basement at 7 Planty Street. He also related that other Christian children had been murdered there. The commander surrounded the house and confiscated their weapons. In return, they were promised protection. During the ensuing pogrom, forty-two people were murdered and dozens more injured. The Kielce pogrom served as a warning to Holocaust survivors not to try to return to their towns and gave an additional push for the massive movement to the West. Within three months, 70,000 Jews left the country.
1018 KIEV (Russia)
During the occupation by the Polish king, Boleslav the Bold, the Jews were attacked and robbed by soldiers. This marks one of the earliest reports of a permanent Jewish presence in Kiev.
1898 October 1, KIEV (Ukraine)
A decree by the Russian Czar (Nicholas II) explicitly barred Jews from living in major Russian cities. The action followed laws issued the previous May (the "May laws"), restricting Jewish settlement to the Pale of Settlement. In Kiev, alone, some 7000 Jews were forced to relocate.
1910 KIEV (Ukraine)
Twelve hundred Jewish families were expelled.
1938 December 10, KINDERTRANSPORT TO ENGLAND
A train with 600 children left from Vienna to England. It was arranged by Geertruida Wijsmuller who representing the Refugees Children's Movement. She traveled to Vienna to meet and convinced Eichmann to allow them to leave. He agreed on the condition that they leave within 5 days. She succeeded. Along with others including Nicholas Winton, and Recha Freier, they succeeded in rescuing around 10,000 children. Most of them were sent to England.
1468 March 13, KING FERDINAND I (FERRANTE) ( Naples)
Although tyrannical and greedy, he decided to give the Jews full rights of citizenship making it one of (if not the only) place in medieval Europe to do so. Naturally – it was for a price, but even this did not last after his death in 1494 when his son Alfonso II assumed the crown.
1712 KING AUGUSTUS II (Poland)
Reneging on his promise to stop further persecution of the Jews, he expelled them from Zausmer on a murder libel.
1940 September 6, KING CAROL II RESIGNED (Romania)
Bowing to German pressure. This left the way for Ion Antonescu, the former minister of defense, to take power. Now a National Socialist state with the Iron Guard, its police force began anti-Jewish programs. The Iron Guard was similar to the SS and served as a political police force. Many Romanian guards joined the SS and took part in the mass killings of Jews. In Romania approximately 300,000 people (50% of the Jewish population) were murdered.
875 KING CHARLES THE BALD (Spain)
Complimented the Jews of Barcelona on their loyalty to him. The Jewish community was considered one of the most influential in Spain. Despite the fact that in general the Spanish kings tolerated the Jews, attacks occurred every now and then that were instigated by the Church and local burghers.
1622 November 25, KING CHRISTIAN IV (Denmark)
In a letter to the Amsterdam Jewish council he promised "privileges" to Jews, including freedom of worship for those settling in his country. Denmark became the first of three Scandinavian countries to permit Jews to settle there.
1098 KING COLEMAN (Hungary)
Tried to protect the Jews against the crusaders passing through part of his country.
1946 July 22, KING DAVID BOMBING (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel)
After the Black Sabbath, Moshe Sneh on July 1 ordered the Irgun to destroy the King David Hotel and the military headquarters located there. Four warnings were made: to the kitchen staff, the hotel, the Palestine Post, and the French consulate. According to witnesses, one high British official shouted "we are not here to take orders from the Jews, we give them orders." He then left, and ordered guards to prevent others from leaving. Twenty-five minutes later the bombs went off, killing 91 people. The British government originally denied that they had been warned, but they were forced to retract it and no inquiry was made as to why the order was given not to leave the building. Despite the orders by Sneh, the Jewish Agency fearful of world opinion, condemned the act. This marked the end of the united resistance movement.
682 February 1, KING ERWIG (Visigoth Spain)
Pressed for the "utter extirpation of the pest of the Jews", and made it illegal to practice any Jewish rites. This put further pressure on the Jews to convert or emigrate.
1574 May 6, KING HENRY VALOIS (Poland)
Granted Jewish privileges. He was the Son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. A year earlier with his mother's influence, he became king of Poland after the death of Sigismund II. In his war against Russia, he was helped by Salomon Ashkenazi a Jewish Turkish diplomat. Upon the death of his brother Charles IX (that same year), he returned to France to become Henry III.rnrn
996 KING HUGH CAPET DIED (France)
His physician, a Jew, was falsely accused of killing him. This report of his murder was used as proof that Jews should not be appointed to important positions.
1280 August 26, KING JAMES I OF ARAGON
Under the influence of the Dominican Friar Raymond Martini, he ordered all disparaging statements regarding Jesus and Mary erased from the Talmud. In addition, the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides was condemned to be burned due to references to Jesus in the chapter on the laws of kingship.
1320 July 22, KING JAMES II (Aragon)
In reaction to the excesses in southern France, he proscribed support for the survivors, including an exemption on taxes. At the same time, he refused to allow forcibly baptized children to be returned to their parents.
1210 November 1, KING JOHN (England)
The brother of Richard the Lionhearted. He imprisoned much of the Jewish population until they paid the enormous sum of 66,000 marks as a tax called a "tallage". This tax could be imposed by any lord on his serfs without special permission, or the king on his Jews as well as the serfs on crown lands. Abraham of Bristol, who refused to pay his "share" (10,000 silver marks) had a tooth pulled every day until he agreed to pay. He lost seven teeth before he was able to raise the funds.
1393 August 18, KING JOHN I (Spain)
In an effort to prevent "backsliding" by converted Jews, he prohibited them from living in the same quarter as unconverted Jews or even eating with them.
1215 KING JOHN SIGNED THE MAGNA CARTA (Runnymede, England)
It included provisions (chapters 10-11) preventing debts owed to Jews by minor heirs from earning interest while the heir was a minor, also declaring that a widow dowry should not be used to pay for her husband's debt. In later reissues, these chapters were dropped.
1400 July 27, KING LADISLAS (Naples, Italy)
Offered the Jews a charter which would give them economic equality.
661 KING LANGOBARD (Northern Italy)
Perctarit - son of Arupert the First. Catholic ruler of the Teutonic Langobard. He forced the Jews to adopt Christianity or be killed. Many Jews survived by outwardly accepting Christianity.
1539 December 31, KING SIGISMUND I (Poland)
Ordered the Jews of Cracow, Posan and Lemberg (Lvov) to buy 3,350 Jewish books from the Printing house of the apostate Helitz brothers. The Jews bought the books as ordered - and then destroyed them all.
1871 KING VICTOR EMANUEL (Italy)
Disregarded the Pope's objection to the razing of the ghetto.
1378 - 1400 KING WENCESLAUS (Germany)
During the fights between the cities and the nobility, he tried a compromise proposal using the Jews as a pawn (1385). He later retracted and broke up the Swabian League, (the league of free cities in S. Germany) remitting all debts owed to Jews, with the Emperor getting his percentage. This provided further impetus for the Jews to move eastward.
1385 June 16, King WENCESLAUS (Germany)
Arrested Jews living in what was known as the Swabian League, and confiscated their books. A hefty fine had to be paid for the release of the prisoners and the return of the books.
C. 390 KINGDOM OF HIMYAR (Southwestern Arabian Peninsula)
Led by Tub'a Abu Kariba As'ad (Abu Kariba) the tribal leadership converted to a form of Judaism. Abu Kariba had become ill while besieging Yathrib ( Medina), and was cured by two Jewish doctors who persuaded him to lift the siege. He became interested in Judaism and converted along with much of his population. He ruled between 378-430. Himyar flourished expanding northwards into central Arabia, until around 500 when it was conquered by Christians from the kingdom of Axum (Aksum), in present day Ethiopia. ( see. 517)
740 - 1259 KINGDOM OF KHAZAR
The King Bulan converted his people to a vague form of Judaism ("religion of Abraham") after ordering a disputation between the three major monotheistic faiths. Ibn Shaprut, the
foreign minister for Abd ar-Rahman of Cordova, corresponded with King
Joseph (960). Most of our knowledge of the Khazars is based on these
letters. The Khazars were eventually overcome by the Mongols under Genghis
Khan. With the spread of Christianity by the Russians, many Khazars were
forcibly baptized. The rest fled. Some went into northern Hungary where
villages still have names such as Kozar and Kozardie. Tshagataish, the
language of the Khazar Jews, is spoken by the few remaining Jewish
Krimtchaki of the Crimea. The Khazars' campaign against the Muslims
(730-740) succeeded in checking the Muslim advance on the eastern flank of
Europe. The Khazars succeeded in defending themselves for 500 years against
Muslims, Byzantines and Russians.
1016 KINGDOM OF THE KHAZARS
Was destroyed by Matislav/Mstislav I of (Kiev)Russia. Some of the Khazars converted, and other communities gradually absorbed the rest.
1903 April 19, KISHINEV (Bessarabia)
Riots broke out after a Christian child, Michael Ribalenko, was found murdered (Feb. 16). Although it was clear that the boy had been killed by a relative, the government chose to call it a ritual murder plot by the Jews. The mobs were incited by Pavolachi Krusheven, the editor of the anti-Semitic newspaper Bessarabetz, and the vice governor, Ustrugov. Vyacheslav Von Plehve, the Minister of Interior, supposedly gave orders not to stop the rioters. During three days of rioting, forty-seven Jews were killed, ninety-two severely wounded, five hundred slightly wounded and over seven hundred houses were destroyed. Despite a world-wide outcry, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and twenty-two were sentenced for one or two years. This pogrom was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to leave Russia for the West and for Eretz Israel. The child's real murderer was later found.
1243 August 6, KITZINGEN, BAVERIA (Germany)
Ritual murder accusation. Fifteen Jews were tortured to death. Their corpses lay in the street for a fortnight before they were allowed to be buried.
1900 March 15, KONITZ (Germany)
A blood libel occurred after the death of a local student. Wolf Israelski was accused and arrested, while Count Plucker promoted riots against the Jews. After Israelski was proven innocent, two others, Moritz Lewy and Rosenthal, were arrested on the same charge. Rosenthal and Lewy were acquitted, but Lewy was sentenced to four years for denying he knew the victim. All the evidence was based on the testimony of a petty thief, Masloff, who later received only one year for perjury.
1942 May 21, KORETZ (Ukraine)
Germans and Ukrainians killed 2,200 people, including the wife and 13 year old daughter of Moshe Gildenman who was soon to become famous as the partisan "Uncle (Dyadya) Misha". Gildenman succeeded in escaping with his son, Simcha, and a few others with one pistol and five rounds of ammunition. His groups slowly grew in strength and were eventually absorbed into Saburov's brigade group. They were always known as Uncle Misha's Jewish groups. During the war, Gildenman received the Order of the Red Star and finished the war with his son in Berlin. After the war, his son returned to Koretz and upon meeting the Ukrainian who killed his mother and sister - shot him.
1915 KU KLUX KLAN (Atlanta, Georgia, USA)
Was organized by William J. Simmons with a white Protestant American membership. During its heyday it delved into politics, organized boycotts and committed acts of violence against Jews, Blacks, Catholics, and anyone foreign born.
1919 KURT EISNER (Germany)
A communist Jew who headed the Bavarian government was assassinated.
1879 KUTAIS (Georgia)
Jews were accused of murdering a Christian girl for ritual purposes. In this, one of the last ritual murder cases, the defense council tried to prove that local Monks were behind the accusations and presented a social analysis of ritual murder cases.