1269 June 19, LOUIS IX (Saint Louis) (France)
Needing no urging from the Church, he ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in France was usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin; it was Caliph Omar II (717-20) who decreed that both Jews and Christians must wear a distinguishing mark. The "badge" took on different shapes, colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country.