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1647 SIMON DE CACRES ( Barbados)

Arrived with his brother Benjamin, from Amsterdam. They received permission from Oliver Cromwell to trade in October 1653. De Cacres was one of the signers of Menasseh ben Israel's petition to allow Jews into England. Together with Carvajal they purchased the first Jewish burial ground at mile end. Cromwell used Cacres for updates on political intelligence. In one of his more daring plans, he proposed to Cromwell that he organize a Jewish army to conquer Chile from the Spanish. It was not acted upon.


1681 PRINCESS ANNE ( England)

The future queen visited a London synagogue in Creechurch lane (later to evolve into the Bevis Marks synagogue). Making Anne ( 1665-1714) the first member of the royal family to visit a synagogue ,since before the expulsion of 1290.


1701 September, BEVIS MARKS SYNAGOGUE ( England)

The oldest existing synagogue in Brittan was consecrated. It replaced the synagogue in Creechurch Lane which had been established in 1656.


1837 - 1907 BLAZER, ISAAC BEN MOSES ( Lithuania- Eretz -Israel)

Rabbi, educator, and leader of the mussar movement. While a student of Rabbi Israel Salanter, the founder of the movement, he worked a a painter, until Rabbi Salanter pressured him to stop. Blazer was appointed the Chief Rabbi of St. Petersburg at age 25, and was therefore also known as Rav Itzele Peterburger. He joined Rabbi Finkel (see 1849) in heading the Slobodka yeshiva. He settled in Jerusalem in 1904 and although he was very active in communal affairs, he refused to take a salary, except as a simple clerk. He published Pri Yitzchat (" Fruit of Isaac" ) a responsa , and Salanter's letters in Or Yisrael ("The Light of Israel").


1842 - 1925 JOSEPH BREUER (Austria)

Physician and Nerophyscist. His treatment of Bertha Pappenheim (see 1859), known under the pseudonym Anna O. led him to develop the idea of using catharsis (the “talking cure”) to help patients with what was called at the time " hysteria". Thus paving the way for the development of psychoanalysis. His protégé was Sigmund Freund.


1854 - 1923 HERTHA AYRTON ( Phoebe Sarah Marks) (England)

Physicist , engineer and inventor. In 1899 she became the first woman to read her own paper before the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE ) and later ( 1904) to do the same before the Royal society. She registered 26 patents and her publications include The Electric Arc, and The Origin and Growth of Ripple Marks.


1859 - 1936 BERTHA PAPPENHEIM (Austria)

Social activist, feminist, poet and author. She founded the Jewish Women's Association and the League of Jewish Women ( Judischer Frauenbund) in Germany in 1904. Pappenheim suffered from an emotional illness and became Joseph Breuer's (Freud's mentor) patient. Known as Anna O, her treatment is regarded as marking the beginning of psychoanalysis. She fought to strengthening women's rights, education, and career opportunities. But is most remembered for her tireless war against human trafficking. Although she was originally against the idea of the emigration of children to Eretz Israel, she changed her position after the passage of the Nuremberg Laws.


1868 March 23, JEWISH ABDUCTION CASE (Cardiff England)

Esther Lyons appeared at the home of Rev Nathanial Thomas a Baptist minister, and his wife Laura. Her father Barnett, claimed that she had been abducted and brainwashed. The Thomas' at first denied knowledge of her whereabouts, but later changed their testimony. The court found that Esther had "left her home in consequence of the enticements of the defendant" and awarded the father 50 pounds plus court costs, but decided that Esther had a right to decide for herself which religion to adhere to . The case highlighted the fears of the Jewish community regarding the conversionist movement.


1905 ALIENS ACT ( England)

Restricted immigrants without any means of support from entering England. Although unlike the USA where there was a quota system, it did reduce immigration especially Jewish. Fourteen years later stricter measures were introduced.


1911 August 19, TRADEGAR RIOTS ( Wales)

Over 250 local workers attacked and looted Jewish business's, claiming that the Jews charged too high prices for goods. Beginning with a drunken brawl, it spread through the area resulting in 15 injures, and the army being called out to regain order.


1936 October 4, BATTLE OF CABLE STREET

Sir Oswald Mosley and 3000 of his black shirt followers attempted to demonstrate in the East End of London, home to tens of thousands of Jews. The " battle" mostly led by the communist party, was one of the few times where the left succeeded in stopping the fascists. Mosley did not try again to enter the East End.




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