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C. 95 EARLIEST JEWISH EPIGRAPH IN NAPLES ITALY

" This is the resting place of Claudia ( probably named for her owner/husband Tiberius Claudius Proculus) Aster ( Esther ) …..prisoner from Jerusalem……. she lived 25 years ".


1120 - 1190 ISAAC BEN ABBA MARI ( Provence)

Known as " Ba'al ha-Ittur," .His Sefer ha-Ittur is a compilation of the main practical halachic laws including financial, Kashrut, marriage and divorce. It was regarded as the authoritative code until the appearance of Jacob ben Asher's Tur ( see 1270).


1452 - C. 1528 ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI FARISSOL ( France- Italy)

Scholar, cantor, biblical commentator and geographer. He wrote a commentary of the Pentateuch Perachei Shoshanim (The Flower of Lilies), a polemic work defending Judaism Magen Avraham ( The Shield of Abraham ) and his famous Igeret Orchot Olam on cosmography and geography, which was translated into Latin as Tractatus Itinerum Mundi in 1691.Farrisol composed a prayer book for women in 1471 ( revised in 1480.) In it he proposed a radical change in the morning prayer regarding women (see 1471).rn


1472 CHANGES IN THE PRAYER FOR WOMAN

Abraham Farrisol proposed in his prayer book for women, to change the morning prayer from "that you made me according to your will" found in the Arba Turim (1270) -"that you made me a woman and not a man." Unfortunately his proposal was not embraced.


1660 - 1744 HAYYIM BEN JACOB ABULAFIA ( Eretz-Israel)

Scholar and community leader. He wrote number book among them Mikrae Kodesh on the Talmud and bible Yosef Lekach on the Pentateuch and Shevut Yaakov on the Ein Yaakov by ibn Habib. In 1742 he asked and agreed to help reestablish the Jewish community in Tiberias (see1742 and 1743). He built a synagogue , bathhouse , oil press and helped raise funds for housing.


1742 TIBERIAS

Jews were encourage to settle in Tiberias by the arab governor Zahir al-Umar ( 1690-1775). Tiberias had been in ruins since its destruction by the Druze in 1660. In order to encourage resettlement he cut taxes and helped build schools. The Jews came mostly from Syria, but also from Cyprus and Safed. One of those he personally invited Hayyim ben Jacob Abulafia who was 82 at the time ( see 1660).


C. 1760 - 1820 HAYYIM FARHI ( Syria- Eretz Israel)

AKA El Mu'Allim "The teacher", for his considerable learning. He was asked to serve Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar the governor of Sidon (r.1776-1804) as his chief advisor. Farhi was the defacto ruler of Acre, and did his best to interceded for fellow Jews when possible. He defended Acre against Napoleon in 1799. He lost his eye, part of his nose, and ear during one of Al Jazzars infamous rages. Farhi was the mentor to Abdullah Pasha who assassinated him.. His body was tossed into the sea and all his assets confiscated by Abdulla (see 1821).


1821 April, ATTACK ON ACRE

By the brothers of Hayyim Farhi. Farhi had been murdered by Abdullah Pasha the Ottoman governor. Farhi's brothers Salomon, Raphael, and Moise, received permission from the grand mufti Sheikh ur-Islam to punish Abdullah . They conquered most of the Galilee, and laid siege to Acre for 14 months without success. After one of the brothers Salomon was poisoned by Abdullah, they gave up and returned to Damascus.




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