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980 CHOCHIN (India)

The Hindu ruler of Malabar, Bhaskara Ravi Varma, granted Rabban Joseph the right for Jews to live in Cochin. Most Jewish life centered around the commercial city of Cranganore until the arrival of the Portuguese in 1523.


981 REGENSBURG (RATISBON) (Germany)

An important trading center on the Danube River, it already had an important Jewish community located next to the Abby of Saint Emmeran. The settlement probably began there a century before.


985 AL MAGDES (Eretz Israel)

A Jerusalem-born Moslem traveler reported that Christians and Jews outnumber Moslems in Jerusalem.


985 NEAR EAST

In Eretz Israel, Syria and Persia, the Jews are reported to be engaged as dyers, tanners, cobblers, butchers and bankers while the Christians were the scribes and physicians.


985 SPARTA (Greece)

Upon being approached to try to stop a plague of pestilence, St. Nicon Metanoites refused until the Jews were expelled so he "would not be contaminated by their customs...or religion."


985 July 1, BARCELONA (Spain)

A number of Jewish residents were killed by the Moslem leader Al-Mansur. Many of them were land owners who left no heirs. According to the law, all their lands were given over to the Count of Barcelona. In Spain at this time it was not uncommon for Jews to own vineyards and other lands.


986 R' NISSIM OF KAIRUAN (Tunisia)

Inquired of R' Sherira Gaon (906-1006) as to the history of the Talmud and how it was composed. R' Sherira's reply to R' Nissim, known as Iggeret Rav Sherira Ga'on, is the foremost source of our knowledge of the history of talmudic times and the growth and compilation of the Mishna-Talmud.


987 HUGH CAPET (France)

Became King of France. The Capetian dynasty lasted for more then 300 years. Capetian rule was weak, especially during the first hundred years. Thus each duchy decided for itself how to treat its Jews. The Church gained enormous influence over local affairs and promoted the idea that the Jews were in league with the Devil - declaring them the "antichrist".


C. 988 - C. 1050 JONAH IBN JANAH (Spain)

Physician and Hebrew philologist. He wrote a number of books including one on remedies Kitab al-Talkhis. Ibn Janah is considered the greatest Hebrew philologist of his time. His major work on grammar written in about 1040 was Kitab al-Tanqihor- Sefer ha-Dikduk (Book of Minute Research). It was the first complete clarification of Hebrew vocabulary and grammar, listing most of the roots and their definitions.


989 VLADIMIR THE GREAT (Russia)

Adopted Christianity. Legend has it that he called upon representatives of the three religions to explain their religions - and chose Christianity.




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