C. 910 - C. 970 MENAHEM BEN JACOB SARUQ(Saruk) (Spain)
Lexicographer, philologist and poet. His lexicon of the bible (Machberet) became the first Hebrew-language dictionary. His work was vociferously criticized by Dunash ben Labrat. Saruq was so vilified that he lost the patronage of Hasdai ibn Shaprut, for whom he had written the letter to the Khazars. He was defended by his students including Judah ibn David Hayyug, who later correctly defined the Hebrew triliteral (three letter) root system. The biblical commentator Rashi refers to him as a philological authority and often quotes him.rnrn
912 - 970 HASDAI IBN SAPRUT (Spain)
Physician to Abd ar-Rahman and Hakam II, Umayyad rulers in Cordova. Together with Moses ben Hanoch, he founded the talmudic school in Cordova. This school's influence was felt in Spain for 350 years. He made contact with Joseph, King of the Khazars, and served him as diplomat and interpreter, always using his position to help and protect his fellow Jews, including those in Byzantium.
913 - 982 SHABBETAI (Abraham) DONNOLO (Italy)
Earliest Jewish author on medicine. His manuscript, Sepher Hamirkachot (or Sefer Hayakar) (Book of Remedies), is based on vegetarian preparations in the Greek tradition. Despite his reputation, his friend St. Nilus refused to use his medicine lest it be said that a Jew cured him. Donnolo was also a noted astrologer and composed a commentary on the mystical Sepher Yetzirah (Book of Creation) called Tachkemoni in which he discussed the mystical significance of the Hebrew letters as well his reasons against discussing the "image of God".