820 - 829 MICHAEL II (Byzantine Empire)
Byzantine emperor who was half Jewish. He probably belonged to a Judeo-Christian sect which kept the whole of Jewish law - except circumcision - and had close sympathies with the Jews.
820 ARCHBISHOP AGOBARD (779-840) (Lyon, Carolingian Empire)
"Proved" in essays that Jews were born slaves and accursed. Agobard forcibly converted Jewish children, offering them or their parents no choice in the matter. This is the first time in France that such an act was recorded. (Until this time Jews were offered the choice of either converting or being expelled or killed - but there was a "choice"). He also urged the sons (especially Lothair) of Charlemagne's successor, Louis the Pious, to revolt. After the revolt (833) he was disposed, but was later reinstated by Louis. Six of his anti-Semitic essays have survived; which are systematically aimed at humiliating and eradicating the Jewish community.
825 EXILARCHY CONTENTION (Babylon)
Between Daniel, a sympathizer with Karaism, and David ben Judah. The entire Jewish population of Babylon became embroiled. The outcome was that David ben Judah eventually held office as Exilarch until 840.
825 KARAITES (Babylon)
Developed into sects, each choosing its own interpretation of the Bible. They included the Ukbarites, Tiflisites and Malik al Ramli. These sects split the Karaite movement even further.
826 ARCHBISHOP AGOBARD (Lyon, Gaul - Carolingian Empire)
Angered by the high positions and security of the Jews, Agobard issued a series of pamphlets to convince King Louis to attack what he called "Jewish insolence" and to invoke the old anti-Jewish decrees of 465, 535 and 538.