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691 FIRST ACCOUNT OF JEWS IN ENGLAND

(Although reports indicate there was no permanent settlement prior to the eleventh century.) These early Jews were mostly traders from northern France. Some may have come to England with the Romans.


692 TRULAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL (Italy)

Also known as the Quinisext council since it combined the fifth and sixth councils. In addition to ratifying over 100 previous decisions, it intensified the Eastern Church's segregation of the Jews. Clergymen were forbidden, on pain of excommunication, to bathe in public baths with Jews, employ a Jewish doctor or socialize with Jews.


693 DAHRA (Dahiya) AL- KAHINA (Carthage)

Defeated Hassan ibn Noman whose huge army was sent by Caliph Abd al-Malik to conquer the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It took Hassan ibn Noman five years to regroup and carry on his conquest.


693 April 25, SIXTEENTH COUNCIL OF TOLEDO (Spain)

King Erwig's successor Egica ,(r.687- 703) forced Jews to return to his treasury all land, slaves and buildings bought from Christians.rnrn


694 November 9, SEVENTEENTH COUNCIL OF TOLEDO (Spain)

King Egica believed rumors that the Jews in North Africa had conspired to ally themselves with the Moslem invaders. He therefore declared that all Jewish children over the age of seven should be taken from their homes and raised as Christians. In towns where Jews were deemed indispensable to the economy, this law was not applied.




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