C. 69 DEATH OF JOSHUA BEN GAMLA (Eretz Israel)
High priest and education reformer. He proposed that children begin studies at age six. That public schools be opened in every town and that there be a supervisory system which would oversee teachers and prevent students from being rejected or expelled without reason. He is considered the founder of the Jewish educational system
69 ERETZ ISRAEL
Johanan ben Zaccai received permission from Vespasian to retire with the rabbinical leaders of his generation to Yabneh. There the foundation was laid, for the survival of the Jewish people in dispersed communities without a central Temple. Their proclamations included the replacement of sacrifices by charity, repentance, and the fixation of initially set prayers (the Amidah, Shemah and Alenu). In addition they began the establishment of an educational system for children, the fixing of the Biblical cannon and the separation between Judaism and Christianity.
70 (9 Av 3830) JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)
Fell to Titus after 4 years of fighting. The Temple was destroyed. According to Josephus, some 1,100,000 Jews perished during the revolt and another 97,000 were taken captive.
70 FISCUS JUDAICUS (Jewish Tax) (Eretz Israel)
As a result of the war, Vespasian ordered the donations of a half-shekel, given by most Jews to the Temple, now be paid to Rome. This marked the first time that a disability was imposed on religious grounds. Anyone who tried to deny their Jewish origin was subjected to a humiliating examination especially under the reign of Domitian, brother of Titus.
73 JONATHAN THE WEAVER (Libya)
Convinced the poorer Jews of Cyrene to revolt by promising them as a "prophet" that he would walk them through the desert. The Roman Governor, L. Valerius Catullus, had them executed. At the same time the Governor also murdered a few thousand wealthy Jews and appropriated their property.
73 April, MASADA (Eretz Israel)
Roman General Flavius Silva succeeded in breeching the Judean desert stronghold held by Elazar ben Yair. Of the 960 people who took refuge on Masada, only two women and five children survived. The rest chose suicide rather than slavery.