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King Erwig began his reign by enacting 28 anti-Jewish laws. He decreed that all converts must be registered by a parish priest, through whom all travel permits must be obtained. He also ruled that all holidays, Christian and Jewish, must be spent in the presence of a priest to ensure piety and to prevent "backsliding".

C. 680 - C. 752 Aha of Shabha (Babylon- Eretz Israel)

Author of Shi'iltot which was the first book written after the Talmud and attributed to its author. Rav Aha was also known as the Ahai Gaon, though he never served in an official position. His Shi’iltot are a series of lectures on Jewish law, ethics and the bible. It is also unique in that it was written with the laymen in mind.After his pupil Natronai ben Nehemia son-in-law of the Exilarch Ḥasdai I, was appointed Gaon of Pumbedita in his stead, he left Babylon and moved to Eretz Israel (c.750). A number of his colleagues followed him. rnrn

C. 680 - C. 1060 EPHRAIM BEN SHEMARYA ( Gaza- Fostat)

Head of the Eretz Israel community in Fostat, Egypt. He is mostly remembered through his many correspondences, especial those with the Gaon Solomon ben Judah, which found their way into the Cairo Geniza .

681 January 9, TWELFTH COUNCIL (SYNOD), TOLEDO (Spain)

The Talmud and other Jewish books were burned in Spain. The synod was a local church council whose decrees were not enforced by the entire church.

682 February 1, KING ERWIG (Visigoth Spain)

Pressed for the "utter extirpation of the pest of the Jews", and made it illegal to practice any Jewish rites. This put further pressure on the Jews to convert or emigrate.

C. 683 MASARJAWAIH (Basra Persia)

One of the earliest Jewish physicians in Persia, translated the medical treatise' of Aaron of Alexandria from Syriac into Arabic. Making it one of the very first scientific books to be translated in Arabic. He also added some of his own chapters. He is often identified as Rav Mesharshia a student of Rava (see 333).

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