The massacre of local non-Moslem populations by the first Caliphs gave way to a practical accommodation, including Omar's encouragement of the Jews to return to Babylon (Persia).
661 KING LANGOBARD (Northern Italy)
Perctarit - son of Arupert the First. Catholic ruler of the Teutonic Langobard. He forced the Jews to adopt Christianity or be killed. Many Jews survived by outwardly accepting Christianity.
661 - 750 UMAYYAD DYNASTY (Syria)
Reigned from Damascus, Syria. This repressive rule failed to unite the Arabs and embittered non-Moslems by their harsh persecutions. The Umayyads were the first to rule after the first four Caliphs which were directly linked to Mohammed. Mu-awiwa was its first Caliph. Depending on the Caliphs the Jews did not fare badly. The Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid family, who claimed the right of supreme power.
The earliest reference to Jews appeared in Liber Poeintentialis by Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury. These were rulings against social interaction between Christians and Jews. There is a question as to whether these rulings were of a general nature and thus not a proof that Jews lived in early England.
The first documentation of early Jews were mostly traders from northern France was in 691.