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610 - 620 REIGN OF SESBUT (Visigothic Spain)

Liberator of much of Byzantine Spain. He prohibited Judaism after many of his anti-Jewish edicts were ignored. Those not baptized fled, but returned under his successor, Swintilla. This was the first incidence where a prohibition of Judaism affected an entire Christian country.


613 TIBERIAS (Eretz Israel)

Led by the wealthy Benjamin of Tiberias, and Nehemiah ben Hushiel the Jews gave their assistance to the conquering Persian forces. This included financial help and a force of about 20,000 people. According to many sources, Ben Hushiel was later appointed governor of Jerusalem by the Persians.


614 FIFTH COUNCIL OF PARIS (Gaul)

Largest ever meeting of Merovingian Bishops. They decided that all Jews holding military or civil positions must accept baptism, together with their families.


614 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

After a 20-day siege, the city fell to the Persians under the General Scharbaraz (aka Romizanes). Some 37,000 Christians were allegedly deported. Nehemiah ben Hushiel was appointed its governor and began to plan to rebuild the temple Jews. At that time there were approximately 150,000 Jews living in 31 rural and 12 urban settlements, throughout Eretz Israel. A few month later local Christians revolted murdering him and his council and succeeded in retaking the city for 19 days.


615 COUNCIL OF PARIS

Jews were excluded from civil and military positions. It was ratified by Clotaire II (584–629) the Merovingian king of the Franks.


615 OATH MORE JUDAICO (Italy)

The earliest referral (in the Justinian codes) to the Jewish Oath also known as Juramentum Judaeorum. It was originally established by Emperor Justinian 75 years earlier. The idea was based on the concept that no heretic could be believed in court against a Christian. Various methods were used to ensure that the Jew would tell the truth. These included swearing on an opened Torah scroll while standing on a pig skin or while wearing a belt of thorns, or even standing on a stool wearing a "Jews hat." In 1555 the oath became standardized throughout Europe and only was totally abolished in 1914 (Romania).


617 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

After only three years the Persians reneged on their promises and forbade Jews to settle within a three mile radius of the city.




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