Jews had formed many warlike tribes. They were renowned, especially in Yathuolb (Medina), Khaiba and Taima, for their advanced knowledge of irrigation. They introduced the date palm, grape vines and the honey bee.
602 - 628 PERSIAN CAMPAIGN - KHOSROE (Khosrow)II (King of Persia)
Attacked the leader of Byzantium at the time Phocas ( r.602-610) trying to get as much territory as possible. He promised the Jews lead by the Exilarch Nehemia ben Hushiel, that if they would attack Eretz- Israel he would allow them back in their homeland. Heraclius (610-641), overthrew Phocas, and succeeded for a time in re-conquering all of Western Asia and some of Egypt. In 628 Khosroe was assassinated.
608 - 610 BYZANTINE EMPIRE
Anti-Jewish pogroms broke out from Syria to Asia Minor.
608 September, ANTIOCH (Syria)
Upon receiving word of the imminent approach of the Persians, and their promise to the Jews to allow them to return to their homeland, the Jews rioted, killing the Christian Patriarch in revenge for the severe repression they had suffered. This facilitated the entrance of Persian troops.