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531 EMPEROR JUSTINIAN (527-565) (Byzantine Empire)

Ruled that Jews cannot testify against Christians. He also censored part of the synagogue liturgy for being anti-trinitarian. Justinian is famous for his Codex Justinianeus (Corpus Juris Civilis), which he began in 527, as well as his new regulations known as Novels (Novellae Constitutiones Post Codicem). In his Codex and Novellae, he revised many of the older ordinances and added some of his own. These included new anti- Jewish imperial directives and restrictions. In general, his code united church and state making anyone who was not connected to the Christian church a non- citizen. These regulations determined the status of Jews throughout the Empire for hundreds of years.


534 BELISARIUS (Byzantine Empire)

Justinian's general. He captured Carthage. The menorah and other Temple vessels were taken to Constantinople. Believing that they would bring him bad luck, Justinian sent them on to Jerusalem. It is not known whether they ever arrived.


535 BORION (North Africa)

By order of Emperor Justinian, the synagogue was closed and all Jewish practices were prohibited.


535 COUNCIL OF CLERMONT (Gaul)

Banned Jewish judges and prohibited Jews from holding administrative positions.


538 THIRD COUNCIL OF ORLEANS (Gaul)

Prohibited Jews from appearing in the streets during Easter because "their appearance is an insult to Christianity". Childbert (a Merovinian king) approved the measure so as not to offend Christians. Until the reign of Charlemagne (800), France (Gaul) consisted of small principalities ruled by petty kings. The decree of a king was not valid beyond the borders of his kingdom, so if Jews were banished from one kingdom it did not affect the Jews in another kingdom.




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