430 VANDALS (a Germanic tribe)
Established a kingdom in North Africa. The Jews there lived peacefully and flourished until the Almohad conquest of the 11th century.
435 DATE OF THE COMING OF THE MESSIAH
R. Judah HaNasi predicted that the Messiah would come in this year (365 years after the destruction of the Temple). R. Hanina, his student, predicted that the Messiah would come in the year 470 (400 years after the destruction). This, coupled with persecution and natural disasters, resulted in the appearance of false messiahs. This phenomenon became so widespread that most rabbis forbade predictions of the coming of the Messiah, since often people bereft of hope would convert after grave disappointment.
438 - 527 MONOPHYSITE DISAGREEMENT (Eretz Israel)
The Church’s preoccupation with clashes over the divinity of Jesus throughout the Byzantine empire, brought about a temporary halt to anti Jewish persecution in Eretz Israel. This relatively peaceful era in addition to the general economic prosperity in the region, led to the restoration of many synagogues in both the north and south.
438 January 2, EMPRESS AELIA EUDOCIA
Wife of Theodosius II visited Jerusalem, and arranged for Jews to visit and pray at the ruins of the temple for the feast of tabernacle later that year ( see October 438). This encouraged a movement of Jews to Jerusalem. Eudocia returned to Jerusalem after being banished by Theodosius II around 443 and remained there until her death in 460. rn
438 October, BARSAUMA OF NISIBIS
After Eudocia had arranged for Jews to pray at the ruins of the temple for the feast of Tabernacles, the monk Barsauma of Nisibis, and forty of his followers, attacked them, killing many. At their trial, he claimed that he was innocent, and that by a miracle the stones fell from heaven. Although the case was originally brought before the empress, it was later transferred to the governor of Caesarea, who acquitted them. Over the next three years, Barsauma roamed the holy land, attacking and destroying synagogues. In 460 he became the Metropolitan Bishop of Nisibis (present Turkey). He was a favorite of King Firuz/Peroz or Persia.
439 January 1, CODE OF THEODOSIUS II (Byzantine Empire)
The first imperial compilation of anti-Jewish laws since Constantine (c.312) went into effect. Jews were prohibited from holding important positions involving money, including judicial and executive offices. The ban against building new synagogues was reinstated. Theodosius was the Roman emperor of the East (408-450). The Code was also readily accepted by Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III (425-455).