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410 ROME

Was sacked by Alaric, king of the Visigoths. The treasures of the Second Temple fell into his hands. What remained was taken to Carthage by the Vandals (455).


Incited the Greeks to kill or expel the Jews. Cyril (376-44) who was appointed patriarch of Alexandria in 412 forced his way into the synagogue at the head of a mob, expelled the Jews and gave their property to the crowd. The Prefect Orestes, who refused to condone this behavior, was set upon and almost stoned to death. Only one Jew, Adamanlius, agreed to be baptized. Within a few years Jews were allowed to return, but a majority of them returned only after the Mohammedans conquered Egypt.

415 October 20, GAMLIEL VI ( Eretz Israel)

Was deposed of his office as Nasi of the Sanhedrin ( Patriarch). Gamliel (c. 370425) lost his position after authorizing the building of a synagogue, in contradiction to the edit of the Western Emperor Honorius (384 423) prohibiting the building of new synagogues. Gamliel who was also a physician, had also held the Roman rank of prefect . The office of Patriarch was abolished by the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II (408-450).

418 MINORCA (Balearic Islands off Spain's eastern coast)

Severus, the bishop of Minorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the Island. This is the first we know of Jews on this Island as well as the first case of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Although in general forced conversions (as laid down by Pope Gregory I) were officially frowned upon, they were considered valid - and backsliding was usually considered heresy. Harsher "no choice" forced conversions began in the 9th century.


As part of what would be known as the Codex Theodosianus (CTh 16.8.24), Jews were banned from joining the imperial service, "They are however allowed to continue to serve as advocates before judges (see 439).

419 BARSAUMA OF NISBIS (Eretz Israel)

A monk gathered a group of followers and for the next three years tried to destroy synagogues throughout the country.

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