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1920 DR. LATHROP STODDARD (USA)

Published The Rising Tide of Color, a racist book describing the "under men" and calling for the development of a pure race while at the same time pronouncing anyone not of "superior stock" an enemy. His book ran to fourteen editions, and a later book, The Revolt Against Civilization, was equally successful. In 1939 he traveled to Germany where he expressed admiration for their eugenics court.


1920 POLAND

Jozef Pilsudski, the Polish statesmen and later first marshal, aligned himself with Petlura and decided to attack Russia in the midst of the Russian Civil Wars. During this attack, which reached as far as Kiev, the armies assaulted the Jewish quarters in each town. Although Pilsudski himself was not considered anti-Semitic, he only acted to stop them after foreign pressure was applied. Approximately thirty thousand Jews were systematically killed before Allied pressure slowed them down. This linked the idea of Polish nationalism with pograms in the mind of the Jews.


1920 RED ARMY (Russia)

Founded by Leon Trotsky, pushed all counter-revolutionary forces out of Russia.


1920 TREATY OF TRIANON (Hungary)

Fifty-one percent of Hungary's Jews became citizens of Rumania and Czechoslovakia, yet remained loyal to Hungary. At the same time they were resented as aliens by their host countries. Many of the remaining Jews in dissected Hungary soon assimilated, yet despite this they were regarded as menaces and third class citizens.


1920 - 1922 GERMANY

The International Jew, an anti-Semitic book, was translated into German and ran through sixteen editions. It was subsidized by Henry Ford.


1920 - 1927 HENRY FORD (USA)

Published an assortment of anti-Semitic literature including: The International Jew, Jewish Activities in the United States and Jewish Influence in American Life. As the result of a libel action in 1927 he was forced to make a public retraction.


1920 - 2007 RIVKA KUPER LIEBESKIND ( Poland -Israel)

A young leader of the Akiva youth movement, she soon became an important member of the resistance organization in Cracow. She was married to Dolek Liebeskind its leader, and was a cousin of Mire Gola ( see1911) with who she performed may sabotage operations. She ,with others would kill drink German soldiers and take their weapons. She was eventual caught, interrogated and sent to Birkenau where she joined the underground group through Rosa Robota (see 1944). She managed to survive and eventual remarried, living in Kibbutz Degania Bet.


1920 - 1987 ZELDA TREGER NISANILEVICH (Poland- Eretz Israel)

Partisan. One of the most famous women partisans in Poland . She trained as a teacher and after the war broke out she joined the Halutz group in Vilna. She passed for a non Jew and was of invaluable help to the HaShomer Ha-Tzair cells around Vilna. She managed to break into the ghetto 18 times relaying messages and bringing weapons and medicine. Although she was captured four times she managed to escape each time. At the end of the war she joined the Nekama "revenge" group under Abba Kovner, and later moved to Eretz Israel where she once again worked as a kindergarten teacher.


1920 January, ENGLAND

The Jewish Peril, an English translation of the "Protocols", was published. During the same year it was also printed in Poland and France and reprinted in newspapers.


1920 January, GERMANY

Ripe for anti-Semitism after its defeat in World War I, the first translation of the Protocols was published. It was called The Secret of the Elders of Zion and was published by the Verband gegen die Ueberhebung des Judentums (League against Jewish Arrogance). Led by Ludwig Miller (von Hausen) AKA Gottfried zur Beek. They also published the periodical Auf Vorposten which blamed Germany's defeat on the Jews. The German Protocols was reprinted five times in 1920 alone.


1920 January 4, METULLA (Eretz Israel)

Bedouin attacks on the north forced the French at a fort near Metulla to retreat. The 120 members of the settlement were forced to flee to Sidon, where they boarded a ship to Haifa.


1920 January 10, LEAGUE OF NATIONS

Was established in an effort to promote cooperation between countries and hopefully prevent further wars. The League of Nations lasted until 1946, although it had little power during its last ten years. The league also dealt with issues regarding anti-Semitism in Germany, the use of the numerus clauses in Hungarian Universities, and the expulsion of Jewish refugees in Austria. On July 24, 1922, the council confirmed the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate for Palestine.


1920 January 19, COMMISSION OF INQUIRY (USA)

Under Henry M. Morgenthau issued their report on the anti-Jewish riots in Poland. Morgenthau put much of the blame on Polish Jews stating that in order to "cure the evils of Poland... they must change their mode of life."


1920 February 24, NSDAP (National Socialist) Party (Germany)

The Nazi party endorsed its own platform which consisted of twenty-five points. Seven of these points concerned the Jews. As part of their program they insisted that Jews could never be citizens or a part of the German Volk (people). That same year the German National Peoples Party (DNVP) also came out "against the predominance of Jewry in government and public life".


1920 March 1, TEL HAI (Eretz Israel)

A Jewish village in the Galilee was attacked by Arabs. Joseph Trumpeldor and seven men under his command were killed in the ensuing battle.


1920 March 21, PRESIDENT HARDING (USA)

Pushed Congress to limit immigration. This had a direct effect on Jewish immigration prior to and during World War II.


1920 March 26, SHABELSKY-BORK (Germany)

A supporter of the "Protocols", he tried to assassinate Pavel Milyukov (former leader of the Cadets, who fled Russia in 1918) at a meeting of Russian refugees. Instead, he killed Vladimir Nabokov and was sentenced to fourteen years in prison. After serving for a short time, he was released and befriended by Alfred Rosenberg, the "Nazi philosopher".


1920 April 4 - 5, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Anti-Jewish riots. Five Jews were killed and two hundred and eleven wounded. Vladimir Jabotinsky and others were arrested for organizing a self-defense league.


1920 April 24, THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT SAN REMO (Italy)

Assigned the British government the Mandate over Palestine, directing her to establish a national home for the Jewish people as presented in the Balfour Declaration. As part of their mandate the British were instructed to recognize "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country." In addition, Britain was to "facilitate Jewish immigration" and "close settlement by Jews on the land." The civil administration was established on July 1, 1920 with Sir Herbert Samuel as the first high commissioner.


1920 May, GENERALS KAFF AND LUTTWITZ (Germany)

Attempted a rightist coup which failed. Their prison sentences were extremely light and they resumed their activities soon after their release.


1920 May 20, HENRY FORD (USA)

Ford's newspaper, Dearborn Independent, with a circulation of seven hundred thousand, "discussed" the Jewish problem.


1920 June 15, HAGANAH (Eretz Israel)

Self-Defense Force was formed during a meeting of the Ahdut Avodah party. It was designed to take the place of the Ha-Shomer Ha-Tzair movement, and was dedicated to havlagah, or self-defense. The original idea had been proposed by Israel Shochat eight years earlier. With the onset of the British Mandate the Zionist leaders had thought there would not be a need for a self-defense organization. The Arab attacks earlier that year proved them wrong. Eliyahu Golomb was its first commander.


1920 July 1, SIR HERBERT SAMUEL (England-Eretz Israel)

A British statesman, he was appointed High Commissioner of Eretz Israel. His first official act was to grant amnesty to political prisoners, including Jabotinsky. He governed the British Mandate for five years - not without confrontation with Zionist ideology. He was knighted in 1937 and took the title Viscount Samuel of Mt. Carmel and Toxteth. During the 1930's he fought to allow more German Jews to immigrate to England and became a supporter of the State of Israel after its formation.


1920 July 11, WIZO (Women's International Zionist Organization)

Was founded in London. Rebecca Sieff was nominated as the first president of WIZO. Its activities include professional and vocational training for women, education of children and youth, shelters for battered women, as well as help for new immigrants. WIZO is recognized by the UN as a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) It is also a member of the World Zionist Organization and of the World Jewish Congress.


1920 July 27, KEREN HAYESOD (Eretz Israel Foundation Fund) (England-Eretz Israel)

Was created in London at the London Zionist Conference for education, absorption and the development of rural settlements in Eretz Israel. Chaim Weizmann was elected president of the World Zionist Organization.


1920 December 12, HISTADRUT HAOVDIM (General Labor Federation) (Eretz Israel)

Was founded in Eretz Israel. Its founder, Berl Katznelson, was a disciple of Borochov. He combined various labor groups to form a federation. In reality the federation became one major union which was divided into trade sections. The Histadrut had its own workers' bank, Bank Hapoalim, as well as an Agricultural Audit Union, and a wholesale purchasing organization, Hamashbir Hamerkazi. Tnuva was its agricultural marketing cooperative, Hamashbir Hamerkazi, its wholesale consumer cooperative and department store, and Solel Boneh its contracting organization. It even had its own insurance company, Hassneh, and sick fund. The Histadrut was forced to make major reforms and cutbacks in the 1990's because of the changed economic climate and economy of the state of Israel.


1921 AUSTRIA

Expelled seventy-three thousand out of the hundred thousand Galician Jewish refugees. The remainder were either too sick or too old to leave.


1921 ITALY

Giovanni Pressiosi published an Italian version of the "Protocols".


1921 YEVSEKTSIA (USSR)

The Yiddish arm of the Communist Party was created as a government tool to control the Jews. It was disbanded in 1929.


1921 AGNES KELETI (Hungary - Israel)

Olympic gymnast. Keleti competed in the 1948, 1952, 1956 Olympics winning 10 medals. She began her career in 1936 but was forced to flee Hungary during the Holocaust. Her father was killed in Auschwitz. In 1956, while in Australia, she defected and moved to Israel where she worked for the Wingate Institute as a physical education instructor and coach for the Israeli gymnastics team. It was reported at age 81, Agnes was still turning cartwheels.


1921 POLAND

Central Yiddish School Organization (CYSHO) was established by the Bund and Poale Zion. It opposed Jewish religious life.


1921 ROBERT LAMBELIN (France)

Translated the "Protocols" directly from the Russian. It ran through sixteen editions in one year.


1921 - 1988 ROZKA KORCZAK (Lithuania-Eretz Isreal)

Partisan educator and leader in the Hashomer Hatzair Youth Movement, She joined with Abba Kovner to helped establish the United Partisan Organization ( FPO). After the liberation she joined the Bricha organization helping the survivors to get to Eretz Israel. She settled in kibbutz Ein Hahoresh where she wrote Flames in the Ashes. Korczak also headed Moreshet an organization dedicated to publishing testimonies and books on the holocaust. rn


1921 THEODOR FRITSCH (Germany) (1852-1933)

"The Nestor (The elder statesman) of German anti-Semitism", he produced his own version of "Protocols" which he claimed was translated from Hebrew. The first publication of his Hammer Publishing House was Antisemiten-Katechismus - a catalogue of Jewish misdeeds.Fritsch's who was a fervent believer in the supremacy of the Aryan race, tried (unsuccessfully at the time) to unite all the anti-Semitic political parties in Germany.


1921 - 1944 November 7, HANNAH SZENES (Senesh) (Eretz Israel-Hungary)

Poet and freedom fighter. Born in Hungary, she immigrated to Eretz Israel in 1939 and joined kibbutz Sedot Yam. Her poem Halikha LeKesariya ("A Walk to Caesarea") is famous today as Eli Eli ( My God My God). In 1942 a call went out for volunteers for a special mission against Germany. She joined 32 other young Jews who were trained by the British to infiltrate behind enemy lines. While in Yugoslavia she wrote her famous poem wrote the poem Ashrei ha-Gafrur ("Blessed is the Match"). She was captured in June 1944 and executed November 7, 1944 . Six other parachutists lost their lives during their missions. Her diary and many of her poems were published after her tragic death. She was reburied in 1950 on Mt. Herzl in Jerusalem.


1921 February 23, ERETZ ISRAEL

Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya'akov Meir were elected the first two chief rabbis. (The Sephardic chief rabbi retained the title of Rishon le-Zion.)


1921 March, TREATY OF RIGA (Poland)

Poland's post-World War I borders were finally recognized. Poland received almost one-third of the Ukraine along with Galicia, Pozania, Pomerania, and parts of Silesia, bringing the Jewish population of Poland to between 11-15% according to conservative estimations.


1921 May 2, JAFFA (Eretz Israel)

Arabs rioted, killing forty Jews and wounding two hundred others. The riots soon spread to Tel Aviv, Petah Tikva, Kfar Saba, Hadera, and Rehovot. Though casualties were "relatively" light, the British decided to immediately suspend Jewish immigration and appease the Arabs by "redefining" the borders of the Balfour Declaration.


1921 September 11, NAHALAL (Eretz Israel)

The first moshav was established in the Jezreel Valley.


1922 HEBREW THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE (USA)

Was founded in Chicago with Saul Silver as president. Its goal was the training of Orthodox students for the rabbinate.


1922 JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION (USA)

Was founded by Stephen Wise in New York for the purpose of training rabbis without a "partisan stamp".


1922 LENIN (Russia)

Created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.


1922 SUPREME MOSLEM COUNCIL (Eretz Israel)

Was established in Eretz Israel under the jurisdiction of the British government. Theoretically, it was created to centralize religious affairs and institutions. In reality, it became an almost omnipotent power in the Arab world. The Husseini family was given control and Haj Amin el Husseini became the Mufti or ruler. As Mufti, he tried his best to engender strong anti-Zionist feeling in his fellow Arabs.


1922 HAYIM HELLER (1878-1960, 14 Nisan 5760) (Germany)

Established a new type of yeshiva in Berlin which combined traditional studies with Biblical and talmudic research (Bet ha-Midrash ha-Elyon). Among his students were Samuel Bialobocki and J. B. Soloveitchik.


1922 March 1, - 1995 YITZHAK RABIN (Israel)

Military leader and politician. Rabin began his long army career in the Palmach at its onset in 1940 and rose within 7 years to be its deputy commander. He commanded the Harel Brigade during the War of Independence and served in different positions in the army until becoming chief of staff at the beginning of 1964. After the victory of the Six Day War, he retired becoming Israel's ambassador to the United States. Rabin became prime minister after Golda Meir's resignation and served until March 1977 when he had to resign over a scandal regarding his wife's illegal bank account. Rabin once again became prime minister in 1992 and oversaw the Oslo Agreement with the Palestinian Authority. He was assassinated by Yigal Amir, a student on November 4, 1995.


1922 May 28, BNEI AKIVA (Eretz Israel)

The "Sons of Akiva", the youth movement of Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi, was founded. The basis for the movement was the idea of Torah va-Avodah ("Torah and Labor"), religion and pioneering. The spiritual leader of the movement was Chief Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. One of its goals was to train its members in agriculture and crafts leading Bnei Akiva to form its own kibbutzim within the structure of Kibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement.


1922 June, PRESIDENT OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY, A.L. LOWELL (USA)

During a commencement exercise he advocated the use of quotas against Jewish college applicants. Though he was forced to retract his statement, a precedent had been set and the quota system rapidly gained acceptance in American universities.


1922 June 18, CHURCHILL WHITE PAPER

Was accepted (with reservations) by the Zionist executive. Six white papers regarding the British Mandate were issued between 1922 and 1939. Each of these policy position papers took its name from the person responsible for its issue. In this one Churchill, the colonial secretary, reaffirmed the Balfour Declaration but stipulated the idea that "Palestine" as a whole would not be "converted into a Jewish National Home." Furthermore, all Jewish immigration should not exceed the "economic capacity of the country." The Palestine Arab congress totally rejected the paper.


1922 June 24, WALTER RATHENAU (Germany)

The Jewish German foreign minister was assassinated by anti-Semitic nationalists who blamed Germany's defeat in World War I on the Jews.


1922 July 22, THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS COUNCIL

Confirmed the Palestine Mandate, citing the Balfour Declaration in the preamble and recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine".


1922 August, SHARON, CONNECTICUT (USA)

Chamber of Commerce urged land owners not to sell to Jews.


1922 September, HUNGARY

College enrollment for Jews was restricted. Hungary was the first nation to openly disregard the Minorities Rights Treaty adopted at the Paris Peace Conference which dealt with the basic civil, political, and religious rights of minorities.


1922 September 21, USA

The United States Congress and President Harding approved the Balfour Declaration.


1922 October, ERETZ ISRAEL

Population reached eighty-four thousand.


1922 October 30, BENITO MUSSOLINI (Italy)

Became premier of Italy. Though at first pro-Zionist and on good terms with the Jewish population, he was later pushed by Hitler to adopt anti-Semitic policies.


1922 November 11, MUNICH PUTSCH (Germany)

General Ludendorff and an Austrian corporal named Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) were arrested after a short parade proclaiming the overthrow of the government. Hitler was sent to Landsburg prison where he wrote Mein Kampf (My Battle), a vicious harangue against democracy, communism, the Versaille diktat and, of course, the Jews as the root of all evil. The book became the "Bible" of the Nazis, and was published in almost every major country. Hitler himself soon rose (1925) to become leader of the Nazi Party and chancellor of the German Reich in 1933. Hitler's compulsive hatred of everything Jewish, coupled with his pathological personality, led him to become the first person in history to systematically conceive and implement the extermination of European Jewry.


1923 BURTON HENDRICK (USA)

In his book The Jews in America, he called for the barring of further Jewish immigration.


1923 FELIX SALTEN (1869-1945) (Austria)

Wrote a novel about a deer in the forest called Bambi. Salten, an Austrian novelist and critic, worked at the Neue Freie Presse and was was a friend of Herzl.


1923 MARCEL MARCEAU (France)

Considered one of the greatest mimes of all time. His most famous character was a white faced clown named Bip. During World War II he helped smuggle children to Switzerland.


1923 POLAND

Began to methodically dismiss Jewish factory workers.


1923 NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY (Nazi Party) (Germany)

Won 800,000 votes. Less than 10 years later, they won 14 million votes..


1923 - 2004 RICHARD AVEDON (USA)

Commercial and fashion photographer. His portraits of celebrities portrayed a different and original spin using unconventional lights and unusual backgrounds.


1923 January 30, SOL BLOOM (1870-1949) (USA)

Was elected to Congress, and would serve until his death in 1949. Bloom was born into a poor Orthodox family yet succeeded in amassing a small fortune enabling him to retire early and enter politics. Bloom was a strong supporter of Roosevelt and was appointed as Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee at the beginning of the war. Although he made an effort to increase the number of Jews allowed into the United States, he did little to antagonize the administration and supported the State Department's positions. After the war, he became a supporter of Israel.


1923 April, BETAR (Brit Trumpeldor) (Riga, Latvia)

Was founded by Aaron Propes under the guidance and philosophy of Ze’ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky. Betar believed in Jewish statehood, undiluted Zionism, self defense, Hebrew, and what was called Hadar a code of good manners, dignity and belief in the intrinsic value of the Jewish people.


1924 HAROLD MAURICE ABRAHAMS (1899-1978), (Britain)

Won the gold medal for 100 meters in the Paris Olympics and a silver medal in the relay. Although his active career was cut short by a leg injury, he continued to be active in sports. The story of Abrahams and Eric Liddell, both members of the British team, later became the basis of the 1981 film "Chariots of Fire."


1924 HILLEL FOUNDATION (USA)

Was started by Benjamin Frankel. The first Hillel House was opened at the University of Illinois. It provided religious and social functions, as well as counseling for the (often assimilated) Jewish students on campuses.


1924 JOHNSON ACT (USA)

Immigration quotas were reduced to two percent of the number of foreign born persons of each nationality that was present in 1890. As a result, immigration was reduced to a trickle. Between 1933-41 the same amount of German Jews (157,000) entered the USA as entered in 1906.


1924 JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE

The Joint agreed to donate funds to help the Russian government resettle Jews in the Ukraine. Fewer than fifteen thousand were actually resettled.


1924 MADISON GRANT (USA)

Published his final edition of The Passing of the Great Race. Predicting that equality would eventually doom the nation, he promoted racist ideology and his hatred for "inferior people".


1924 - 1965 ELI COHEN (Egypt-Israel)

Israel intelligence officer, Cohen succeeded in infiltrating the highest echelons of the Syrian military and civilian government before he was caught and hung in 1965. The Syrian government is still refusing to allow his widow to rebury him in Israel.


1924 - 1930 FOURTH ALIYAH (Eretz Israel)

Was comprised mainly of older Jews who feared conditions in Europe and were barred from the United States by its closed door policy (the Johnson Act). Nearly half of the 62,000 immigrants were from Poland. Due to an economic slump, 11,000 of the immigrants subsequently left the country.


1924 - 2014 LAUREN BACALL (Betty Joan Perske) (USA)

"The Look" as Warner Brothers billed her,rnmade her film debut starring opposite her husband-to-be, Humphrey Bogart in "To Have and Have Not" (1944). Over the next half century she performed in over 35 films. When her movie career cooled somewhat, she turned to Broadway, winning awards for her roles in Applause (1970) and Woman of the Year (1981). Although Bacall was never known by moviegoers as a "Jewish actress", according to her autobiography, she always felt proud of her Jewish heritage, which was rooted primarily in her love for her first-generation Jewish immigrant family.rn


1924 August 8, MEXICO

President Plutarco Elias Calles declared that his country would accept Jewish immigration. By 1937, Mexico reversed itself and many countries, including Poland and Romania, were allowed only 100 immigrant visas per year.


1924 September 22, RUSSIA

Chjekists (secret police) rounded up all known Zionists. Over thirty thousand were arrested and the Zionist organization was forced to move underground.


1925 AUSTRIA

Deans of all Austrian universities decided to deny Jews positions in higher education.


1925 HUNGARY

Count Stephan Bethle was elected prime minister. He promised to do away with anti-Semitism and succeeded until the Depression.


1925 UNITED STATES

For a short period of time the communists succeeded in taking over the most important local branches of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.


1925 JEWISH AGRICULTURE (Argentina)

A total of 33,135 Jews worked in agriculture, 20,382 of them were farmers.


1925 February 5, ESTONIA

Became the only country in eastern Europe to grant full rights to its minorities, including the Jews. This, despite the fact that Estonia was not a signatory on the league of nations treaty of 1921.


1925 February 5, ESTONIA

Became the only country in Eastern Europe to recognize its four minorities - Russian, German, Swedish, and Jewish, even though it had refused to become a signatory to the Minorities Treaties.


1925 February 10, THE TECHNION (The Israel Institute of Technology) (Eretz Israel)

Was opened in Haifa, making it the first institute of higher education to be opened in Eretz Israel. Its first head was Shlomo Kaplansky whose goal was to train engineers to the highest of European standards. By 1952 the Technion was offering Masters and Doctorates. Today the Technion remains Israel's main training center for its high tech industries.


1925 April 1, HEBREW UNIVERSITY (Eretz Israel)

Was opened in Jerusalem by Lord Balfour on Mount Scopus. Its first Chancellor was Dr. Judah Magnes. The idea for the university had been proposed as far back as the Kattowitz Conference in 1884 by Herman Schapira. Chaim Weizmann served as chairman of the board. Its library became known as the Jewish National Library and is the largest in the country. After the attack on the Hadassah convoy in 1948, the university was forced to relocate to the Givat Ram campus in Western Jerusalem. After the Six Day War the Hebrew University built a modern campus which was re-established on Mount Scopus in addition to the Givat Ram campus.


1925 April 30, PARIS (France)

The Revisionist Party (Brit Ha-Tzionim Ha-Revisionistim) was founded by Zev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky. Jabotinsky adhered to the Herzlian concept that Zionism is basically an ideological movement. He demanded a more aggressive policy toward the British, believing that only world-wide pressure would force the British to abide by the Mandate. The revisionists believed that the highest priority of the Zionist movement should be in bringing the greatest number of Jews to Eretz Israel in the shortest possible time.


1925 August 7, NAHUM SHTIF ESTABLISHED YIVO (Yiddish Scientific Institute, Yidisher Visenshaftlikher Institut)

As a Yiddish academic institute with its center in Vilna. Its goal was to promote scholarly research in Yiddish, especially on Jewish life and history in Eastern Europe. In addition, it standardized Yiddish spelling and gathered thousands of documents on Jewish culture and folklore from over much of Europe.


1925 December 15, REZA KHAN ASCENDED THE THRONE OF PERSIA ( Iran)

Marking (with the help of the British) the onset of the Pahlavis dynasty which lasted until 1979. Khan (1878 - 1944), founded the modern Iranian state. He initially cancel all discriminatory laws against Jew and other minorities. Later on, he grew increasingly distrustful of any movements including Zionism and had one of the Jewish leaders Shmuel Hayyim (1891 -1931) murdered on a trumped up charge . He also grew close to Hitler, changing the name of the country from Persia to Iran in 1935 to reflect his belief that they were an Aryan race.


1926 DAVID SARNOFF (1891-1971) (Russia -USA)

Created the first radio chain, the National Broadcasting Company. He was known as the "Father of American Television". Sarnoff won fame as a young worker in atelegraph office the night of the Titanic disaster, where he remained for 72 hours relaying up-to-date information.


1926 - 1995 (16 Cheshvan 5755) SHLOMO CARLEBACH (Germany-USA)

Singer and composer. Reb Shlomo, as he was known, is considered "The Father of Modern Jewish Music". He successfully synthesized the American folk idiom with traditional and Hasidic music, creating a following in both the observant and non-observant Jewish communities around the world. During the 1960's he established the "House of Love and Prayer" in San Francisco, which served as a magnet for many non-committed Jews. It was the only Jewish presence in Haight-Ashbury, a gathering point for young seekers in the 1960's and 1970's. Reb Shlomo's activities in Israel and the USA helped spur the Baal Teshuvah movement which brought many Jews back to Jewish observance.


1926 March 16, JERRY LEWIS (Joseph Levitch) (USA)

Comedian, actor, writer and director. Jerry Lewis made his debut at age five in New York's Borscht Circuit and at age 15, perfected a comic routine known as his "Record Act" - miming and silently mouthing lyrics of operatic and popular songs to a phonograph located off-stage. In 1946, Lewis formed a very successful partnership with Dean Martin which lasted 10 years. They made 16 films together sandwiched with nightclub, TV, and radio appearances. After the breakup, Lewis continued his successful acting career adding screenwriting and directing into his repertoire. Lewis' credits include the films Geisha Boy (1958), Bellboy (1960), The Nutty Professor (1963) and The King of Comedy (1983). He won the French Legion of Honor in 1984 and was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977 for his tireless efforts in his fight against Muscular Dystrophy.


1926 May 26, SAMUEL SCHWARZBARD (Ukraine)

Traveled to Paris to avenge his parents' death at the hands of Petlura. After days of stalking, he confronted him, shot him and surrendered to the police. He was acquitted by the court of Assizes on all charges.


1927 LEGION OF ARCHANGEL MICHAEL (Romania)

Was founded by Corneliu Codreanu (1899-1938). This fascist Christian-nationalist anti-Semitic organization was the forerunner of the Iron Guard which led most of the anti-Semitic movement in Romania before and during World War II.


1927 June 21, NEW YORK (USA)

Three Jewish interns at Kings County Hospital were attacked and tied up.


1927 June 30, HENRY FORD (USA)

The automobile magnet was forced to publicly apologize for libel against the Jews. Aaron Sapiro, a lawyer, had accused Ford and his Dearborn Independent of the libel. Although the case was a personal one, the newspaper's anti-Semitic propaganda figured heavily in the case. Ford was forced to retract some of his accusations and apologize.


1928 USSR

Two Zionist emissaries were arrested and never heard from again.


1928 February 28, BIROBIJAN, USSR

Decided to set up a Jewish district (Yevreyskaya Avtonomnaya Oblast) in Birobijan in South- Eastern Siberia. Most of its 14,000 square miles (36,000-square-kilometers) were uninhabitable due to floods. It was to be used as a buffer zone against China.


1928 March 25, POPE PIUS XI

Disbanded the catholic organization Friends of Israel Opus sacerdotale Amici Israel, which had been active for only two years. Their aim had been to promote a better attitude to Jews by among other things canceling the charge of deicide against the Jews, and to work towards their conversion.


1928 September 22, THE MASSENA BLOOD LIBEL, (upstate New York, USA)

On the eve of the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), Rabbi Berel Brennglass of Massena's Orthodox congregation Adath Israel was called to police headquarters at the suggestion of Mayor W. Gilbert Hawes, to answer charges on ritual murder after a four year old girl disappeared. Although she turned up the next day there remained a strong undercurrent of anti-Semitism in the town.


1929 MURRAY GELL-MANN (USA)

Physicist. Gell-Mann helped develop the school of particle physics with his classification known as the "Eightfold way" which he developed together with Yuval Neeman in Israel. His work earned him the Nobel Prize in 1969. Gell-man called the new particles quarks, a name taken from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.


1929 June 12, - 1945 March 15, ANNE FRANK (Amsterdam, Holland)

Anne was born in Frankfurt, but spent most of her life in Holland. Once the deportations began, Anne and her family moved to a hiding place and stayed there from July 9,1942, until they were betrayed in August 4, 1944. She died in the Bergen- Belsen concentration camp from typhus, shortly before the liberation. Anne had hoped to become a writer and succeeded beyond anything she could have imagined when her diary was published in 1947. Since then, over 20 million copies of Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, edited by Otto Frank, her father, have been printed and over 50 editions published. A theatrical version, The Diary of Anne Frank, opened on Broadway in 1955 and was awarded a Pulitzer Prize, as well as a Tony for Best Play of the Year (1955). A film was later produced in 1959. For many, Anne’s diary is the main exposure to the horrors of the Holocaust.


1929 August 11, JEWISH AGENCY (Zurich, Switzerland)

Was created at the 16th Zionist Congress, to include non-Zionists in the creation of the State. Among them were Louis Marshall, Leon Blum and Felix Warburg.


1929 August 16, ERETZ ISRAEL

Although warned by the Zionist Executive that the Arabs were preparing to attack the Jews of Jerusalem with massive riots, High Commissioner Sir John Chancelor refused to cut his vacation short, declaring that relations between the two sides were improving. The day after the ninth of Av, after Friday prayers, two thousand Arabs attacked Jews praying at the Western Wall. One Jewish youth was stabbed in the back. The British Government refused to condemn the attack, leading the Arabs again to believe that the British supported their riots.


1929 August 23, ERETZ ISRAEL

Arabs began to riot throughout pre-state Israel after Moslem Friday prayers. The next day, the riots spread to Hebron where over 60 Jews were killed and over 50 injured. During the week of August 23-29, 113 Jews were killed and 339 wounded. As a result, Sir Walter Shaw headed a commission which urged the banning of Jewish immigration and absolved the Arabs and the Mufti of guilt. Another commission led by Sir John Simpson declared that the entire Zionist operation was unsound and undesirable. Both of these commissions were under the auspices of Lord Passfield, the British Colonial Secretary.


1929 October 10, PRICES COLLAPSE ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE (USA)

The Jewish community, which relied heavily on contributions, had to retrench, cutting back on essential services to orphanages, synagogues and schools. Discrimination in the form of job rejections became commonplace. The Depression led to a hiatus in immigration to the USA and pressure on the government to apply immigration quotas. The Depression was world-wide and encouraged the growth of both communism and fascism. In Germany it led directly to the rise of the Nazi party.




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