1860 HAMEILITZ (Russia)
Was published by Alexander Zederbaum. It became the first Hebrew weekly published in Russia.
1860 NEW YORK (USA)
There were 17 active synagogues in the city.
1860 SPANISH-MOROCCAN WAR
Following an attack by the Spaniards, 400 Jews were killed in the city of Tetuan in anti-Jewish riots. During the war many Jews took refuge in Gibraltar.
1860 - 1930 WALDEMAR MORDECAI WOLF HAFFKINE (Russia)
Developer of an anti-cholera and bubonic plague vaccine. He was an Orthodox Jew who supported yeshivot in Eastern Europe with his earnings.
1860 DEBORA ROMM (Vilna)
Took over her husband's printing press after his death at the age of 29, renaming it "The Widow and Brothers Romm". Under her direction it became one of the most well known and respected printing houses in Europe. In 1889 she printed a full edition of the Talmud known as the Romm edition, which has remained a classic and is still in use. Twenty-two thousand copies of the first volume were sold in the first year.
1860 - 1911 GUSTAV MAHLER (Bohemia-Austria-USA)
Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies. His eighth, "Symphony of a Thousand", requires one thousand performers. Mahler was forced to convert to Christianity as a prerequisite to accepting the post of director of the Vienna Court Opera. His most important song cycles are Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (1884) and Kindertotenlieder (1900-02). During the last 4 years of his life he conducted the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic.
1860 - 1925 HUGO PREUSS (Germany)
Jurist and liberal politician. He was originally denied a professorship because of his Jewish background, but in spite of this he eventually became Minister of the Interior (see 1921) and headed the committee responsible for drafting the Weimar Constitution.
1860 - 1935 RUFUS ISAACS, FIRST MARQUESS OF READING (England)
The grand-nephew of Daniel Mendoza. He achieved unprecedented honor (for a Jew) in England. Starting as a lawyer rather late in life, he was soon renowned for his abilities and was later appointed Lord Chief Judge, as well as Attorney General and Queens Council. Although not active in Jewish affairs, he stated in 1915, "The Jews ought to have a place" and a government of their own."
1860 - 1941 SIMON DUBNOW (Russia)
The most prominent Jewish historian of recent times. He wrote two separate histories: "History of the Jews" and "History of the Jews of Russia and Poland". He believed that the Jews had a cultural autonomy within other nations, and therefore should all speak Yiddish as a common language. Dubnow also encouraged Sholem Aleichem in his writing. Dubnov was killed in Riga in December 1941, allegedly by a Gestapo officer who had at one time been a student of his.
1860 January 4, FUAD PASHA (Galilee, Eretz Israel)
The Turkish governor ( Sanjak of Acre), encouraged and invited Moorish tribes from Algeria to move to the Galilee. This in effort to boost the Muslim population especially around the area of Safed.
1860 February 21, URIAH P. LEVY (1792-1862)
Is appointed Commodore of the Eastern Mediterranean fleet. Levy a naval officer, found himself facing many anti-Semitic obstacles in his career, and was eventually forced to turn to a court of inquiry in his argument against the navy. The court ruled in his favor, and he was appointed Commodore in the U.S. Navy, a post which he held until his death. He is also remembered for his fight to abolish capital punishment within the navy.
1860 May, - 1904 THEODORE HERZL (Hungary-Austria-France)
Founder of political Zionism. Born in Budapest, his education was German with little Jewish influence. He became a correspondent and later editor of the Neue Freie Presse in Vienna. For a while he toyed with the idea of converting and felt that mass conversion might solve the problem of anti-Semitism. He was in Paris during the Dreyfus trial, which inspired his idea of a Jewish national homeland. He had never read Hess or Pinsker, but developed the idea of Zionism entirely on his own. Herzl wrote "The Jewish State" in three weeks and then launched his Zionist program. He served as the physical and spiritual head of the World Zionist Organization until his death soon after the Uganda scheme failed to win support. During his life, he met with as many heads of state as possible in order to win support for a national homeland.
1860 May 17, ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE (Kol Yisrael Haverim) (France)
Was launched by a group of French Jews under the direction of Adolphe Cremieux. It was designed to defend Jewish rights and to establish modern Jewish educational facilities throughout the world. The Alliance is considered to be the first modern Jewish organization. It became the prototype of other organizations of its kind. The catalyst for its creation was the Damascus Affair in 1840, the Mortara Case in 1858, and the growing need to protect Jews on an international basis. The Franco-Prussian War diminished its universality and separate organizations were formed in Germany and England.
1860 November 3, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)
The first neighborhood outside the old city wall was dedicated. The site was purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore five years earlier and was known as Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Although there was initial resistance to leaving the "security" of the Old City walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods.
1860 November 3, MISHKENOT SHA'ANANIM (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel)
The first neighborhood outside the Old City's walls was dedicated. The site was purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore, five years earlier, with $60,000 from the estate of Judah Touro which was left for Montefiore to use at his discretion. Although there was initial resistance to leaving the "security" of the Old City's walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods.
1860 December 21, - 1945 HENRIETTA SZOLD (USA)
Founder of Hadassah (the American Women's Zionist Organization), which was named after the Hebrew name of Queen Esther. She served as its president until 1926. In 1893 she worked as the secretary of the Jewish Publication Society and translated a number of publications. She was a devoted Zionist and a member of the Zionist Executive.
1861 A HEBREW PERIODICAL CALLED "TEBUNAH"
Was started by Israel Lipkin Salanter. It dealt with rabbinical law and religious problems.
1861 ADOLPH FRANK (Germany)
Discovered the use of potash and created the potash industry.
1861 DOV BERISH MEISELS (Warsaw, Poland)
Petitioned and led demonstrations against Russian oppression in Poland. Together with Marcus Jastrow (a Reform leader soon to emigrate to America) and Christian leaders, he organized a mass funeral for those slain by the Russians.
1861 - 1865 AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (USA)
Jews fought heroically on both sides. 10-12,000 Jews fought for the Confederates and 15-20,000 for the Union, including 9 generals, 21 colonels, 40 majors, and 205 captains. The majority, including Isaac Meyer Wise, sided with the North for moral reasons.
1861 - 1943 CHAIM ZHITLOWSKY (Russia-USA)
Philosopher, socialist and writer. He called for a unification of socialism and Jewish nationalism. He was an opponent of political Zionism and was one of the founders of the Social Revolutionary Party in Russia. Zhitlowsky was active in the bund and help publish the communist manifesto in Yiddish. A proponent of Yiddish, he help found the Yiddish Culture Society in 1929.
1861 - 1893 SHUKR BEN SALIM KUHAYL I (Sana'a, Yemen)
Was also known as Mari (Master) Shukr Kuhayl I. During a particularly difficult period for Jews in Yemen, this poor preacher, announced himself as the messenger of the Messiah. He soon upgraded his claim to that of the Messiah himself, and won many adherents in Yemen. Shukr was killed and decapitated in 1865 by local Arabs. Prior to his death he promised to reappear and a few years late was succeeded by Judah ben shalom ( see 1867)
1861 March 3, EMANCIPATION ACT (Russia)
In an effort to gain support of the liberals, censorship was eased on newspapers, and controls relaxed in universities. Serfdom was also abolished with about half of them owning some land. Ironically this worked to the detriment of the Jews. The serfs, now producers, began to see the Jewish merchant middlemen as standing in their way to attaining wealth. This would lead to mass participation in the pogroms of 1881.
1861 May 6, DAVID CAMDEN DE LEON (USA)
David Camden De Leon, known as "the Fighting Doctor", was appointed as the first surgeon general of the Confederate Army.
1861 October 26, JOHANN PHILIP REISS (1834-1874) (Germany)
Invented and exhibited the telephone at a conference of physicians in Giessen (15 years before Bell). Unfortunately, due to his poor health and a lack of financial resources, he was not able to commercialize on his invention. In Europe he was recognized as the inventor of the telephone.
1862 - 1923 MORRIS ROSENFELD ("Poet of Labor") (USA)
Wrote about life in the sweatshops of New York. He dealt with humanitarianism rather than Socialism. His Lider Buch (Songs from the Ghetto) won wide acclaim.
1862 RABBI ZEVI HIRSH KALISHER (Poland)
Published an appeal for the establishment of agricultural colonies in Eretz Israel in a pamphlet called Drishat Zion (Seeking Zion).
1862 MOSES HESS (1812-75) (Germany)
Wrote "Rome and Jerusalem". After his belief in the panacea of socialism waned, he came to the conclusion that anti-Semitism would not be cured by assimilation. Instead, he held that Jews should build their own nation and society in an independent Eretz Israel.
1862 September 18, JACOB FRANKEL (USA)
Was appointed as the first Jewish chaplain in the U.S. army by Presidential order. Until now the only chaplains in the U.S. Army were Christian.
1862 October 4, EMANCIPATION IN BADEN (Germany)
In spite of the fact that much of Prussia had removed the anti-Jewish disabilities years earlier, Baden had refused, conditioning it on Jewish cession of outward characteristics. On this date they were finally removed unconditionally.
1862 December 17, GENERAL GRANT (USA)
In issuing his infamous order 11, he ordered all "Jews as a class" expelled from his lines. In New York City 7,000 Jews marched in protest against his decision. Lincoln rescinded Grant's order.
1863 - 1920 S. ANSKY (Solomon Rapoport) (Russia)
Yiddish short story writer, playwright, and folklorist. His fame stems from his play "The Dybbuk". During World War I he helped set up self-defense forces in Kiev.
1863 - 1940 CYRUS ADLER (USA)
American rabbi, scholar, and educator. Adler succeeded Solomon Schechter as president of the Jewish Theological Seminary and later became president of Dropsie College in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the American Jewish Historical society, the United Synagogue of America, and the American Jewish Committee.
1863 - 1940 (5 Av 5700) HAYYIM OZER GRODZENSKI (Poland)
Appointed Rabbi in Vilna at the age of twenty-four. He spent much of his time trying to alleviate the plight of the poor, the yeshivot, and the constant refugees. An early leader of the Agudas Yisroel Movement, he was embroiled in many controversies over liberalism and the Zionist movement, and always maintained a strictly conservative view. His Responsa Achiezer was published in three volumes and established him as a leading Torah authority.
1863 - 1926 MAXIM VINAVER (Russia)
Jewish leader, lawyer, and spokesman for the Jewish "Block" in the Duma.
1863 - 1941 MENACHEM MENDEL USSISHKIN (Russia-Eretz Israel)
Zionist leader. He served as Hebrew Secretary at the First Zionist Congress and bitterly opposed the Uganda plan. His views were expressed in a pamphlet, "Our Program", which advocated group settlement based on labour. Ussishkin was President of the Jewsh National Fund for eighteen years, and he was the force behind large land acquisitions in Emek Hefer and in the Jezreel and Bet Shean valleys. He was one of the few Zionist leaders to actually settle in Israel.
1863 PESEL BALABAN (Ukraine)
Printed the Bible with commentaries. After her husband's death she expanded both the scope and quality of her publications. Her edition of the Shulhan Aruk published with commentaries in 1898, is considered one of the best ever printed.
1863 December, THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF CULTURE AMONG THE JEWS OF RUSSIA
Was founded by Baron Joseph Guenzburg. Also known as the OPE, its goal was to help Jews learn the Russian language, secular subjects and culture. There were numerous difficulties including antagonism by Russian bureaucracy, and the reluctance religious community which saw it as a tool for assimilation. During later years there was controversy on the language of instruction in the schools for refugees. The OPE wanted Yiddish, others wanted Russian, and the Zionists wanted Hebrew.
1864 - 1948 ABRAHAM MORDECHAI ROTHENBURG (Eretz Israel)
Grandson of Isaac Meir (the founder of the Gur Hassidic dynasty and author of Chiddushai Harim). He was one of the foremost leaders of Polish Jewry and founder of the Agudist religious movement. Though he was not a Zionist, he visited Eretz Israel six times. In 1940 he escaped the Nazis and made his way to Eretz Israel.
1864 - 1867 MEXICO
Backed by French troops Emperor Maximilian, the archduke of Austria, ruled as emperor of Mexico. Many Jews from France, Belgium, and Austria arrived in his wake, helping to establish the modern Jewish community in Mexico. After his execution by republican forces under Benito Juarez, the situation for the Jews in Mexico did not change for the worse.
1864 - 1888 MOROCCO
During this period, 307 Jews were murdered by Moslems without one Moslem being put on trial for this crime.
1864 January 1, - 1946 ALFRED STIEGLITZ (USA)
Master photographer and the first who had his pictures accepted into museums. He did much to help photography achieve the status of an accepted art. He edited the photography magazine, Camera Work. Among his studies were portraits of his artist wife, Georgia O'Keeffe.
1864 February 14, - 1926 ISRAEL ZANGWILL (England)
Celebrated portrayer of the humorous as well as the tragic side of Jewish life in England. As a member of the World Zionist Organization during the Uganda affair, he led a secessionist group to form the Jewish Territorial Organization (J.T.O.). The group did not oppose but also did not insist on Eretz Israel as a national homeland.
1864 May 16, - 1937 NATHAN BIRNBAUM (Mathias Acher) (Austria)
Philosopher and early Zionist leader. Although Birnbaum left orthodoxy at a young age, his direction moved into Jewish Nationalism rather than assimilation. He formed Kadimah, a nationalist students organization in 1882 and became one of Herzl's strong supporters. Three years later, he founded and edited the first Jewish nationalist journal in German, Selbstemanzipation, where the term Zionism was first used in a modern sense. He left active Zionist affairs in 1903 over a disagreement on the negation of the Diaspora, and advocated Diaspora nationalism and Yiddish along with Zionism. In the aftermath of WWI he became active in religious organizations becoming the general secretary of Agudat Israel (1919). He wrote numerous articles delineating his religious philosophy of trying to "create the new Jew, based in the Torah, near to nature and to God".
1865 - 1941 PAUL HYMAN (Belgium)
Premier of Belgium and the first president of the League of Nations. His father wrote the Belgian National Anthem.
Removed anti-Jewish disabilities.
1865 - 1935 (3 Elul 5635) ABRAHAM ISAAC KOOK (Eretz Israel)
Proponent of a religious national philosophy. Rav Kook was appointed the first Chief Rabbi of Israel. He tried to broaden the outlook of the yeshivot to cope with modern ideas and train spiritual leaders. His mystical leanings helped him embrace even the non-religious pioneers and earned him the respect of the entire Zionist world. Rav Kook set up his own yeshiva, which later became known as Mercaz Harav. He was an outspoken critic of the British Mandatory government and a staunch defender of the Revisionist movement during the infamous Arlozoroff affair, once he became convinced of their innocence. His many works in philosophy and halacha include Iggeret Hareaya, Orot Hateshuva, Shabbat Haaretz, Daat Kohen, and Mishpat Kohen.
1865 - 1931 LIEUTENANT GENERAL SIR JOHN MONASH (Australia-France)
Highest ranking Australian in World War I. In 1918 he was appointed head of the Australian army in France.
1865 March 13, FREDERICK KNEFLER (1833-1901) (Hungary - USA)
Army officer. Born in Hungary, Knefler had the distinction of being one of the only people to rise from a private to a general during the course of a war. In 1861 he volunteered for the Union Army and became a captain within one year. Fighting under General Sherman, he was promoted to brevet brigadier general just before the end of the war.
1865 April 14, PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865) (USA)
Was assassinated. Lincoln was the first President to deal with national Jewish problems, including the appointment of Jewish Chaplains in the U.S. Army and his involvement with the expulsion order of Ulysses S. Grant. (see 1862)
1866 ALEXANDER CUZA (Romania)
Was overthrown. Cuza had united Romania for the first time in 1859 and tried to prepare for the emancipation of the Jews. He was succeeded by Ion Bratinau who, together with his brothers, ruled until World War I. The 50 years of their reign was a time of government-led pogroms and harassment of Jews.
1866 - 1939 BARUCH DOV LEIBOVITZ (Lithuania)
Dean of the Kamienice Yeshiva. He favored strict talmudic study with only thirty minutes daily devoted to the study of Mussar (ethics).
1866 BASEBALL - PIKE LIPMAN (1845-1893) (USA)
Was hired to play for the Philadelphia Athletics for $20 a month, becoming the first Jewish professional baseball player. That same year he hit 6 home runs in a single game, five of them in a row. In 1870 he joined the Brooklyn Atlantics and played in the famous game of 1870 when they defeated the Cincinnati Red Stockings, which was the first all professional baseball team.
An act was passed which replaced the oath of admission to Parliament, paving the way for Jews to be admitted to both houses.
1866 GALANTZ (Romania)
City officials started a tug-of-war with Turkey over the Danube. In this case, the Jews were the rope. They were forcibly shipped across the river and told not to return. Turkey refused to accept them and shipped them back. This continued until Romania decided to drown them if they returned. Two people subsequently drowned and Turkey allowed the survivors to remain.
1866 - 1938 LEV SHESTOV (Schwartzman) (Russia)
Philosopher known as the "Nietzche of Russia". He believed that everything revolved around G-d. He influenced many of the 2oth century's intellectuals including Camus, Berdayev, and D.H. Lawrence. Among his works are essays on Chekhov, Tolstoy, Ibsen, and Dostoevsky as well as his books "Athens and Jerusalem" and "Speculation and Relation".
1866 WILLIAM VAN PRAAGH (1845-1907) (Holland- England)
Began pioneering experiments teaching lip-reading to deaf mutes at the Jews' Deaf and Dumb Home in London.
1866 - 1959 ABRAHAM FLEXNER (USA)
Educator. Flexner, known as an innovative educator, was commissioned by the Carnegie foundation to study the medical schools in North America. Flexner's report had a major impact on the methodology of medical education and its reform. He later directed the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.
1866 - 1956 MURAD BEH FARAG ( Egypt)
Jewish scholar and poet. In 1923 he co-authored the first Egyptian constitution. Although a strong Egyptian patriot as portrayed in his poem 'My Homeland Egypt, Place of my Birth', he also believed in the right for the Jews to have a state of their own.
1866 January 14, SWITZERLAND
Jewish rights were ratified. Switzerland was the scene of some of the worst massacres during the Black Plague and a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts. This legislation was only passed after the United States, Britain, and France refused to sign treaties until their anti-Jewish cantons were repealed.
1866 January 15, SWITZERLAND
Jews were finally granted equal rights. It took another seven years for the Constitution to be changed.
1866 June 29, ROMANIAN CONSTITUTION
Was issued by Carol I of Romania (1839-1914). In article 6 he proposed that "religion is no obstacle to citizenship" and continued "with regard to the Jews, a special law will have to be framed". The next day anti- Jewish roots ensued and the Bucharest Synagogue destroyed. Article 6 was then canceled and substituted with article 7 which stated "only such aliens as are of the Christian faith may obtain citizenship".
1867 - 1922 WALTER RATHENAU (Germany)
German Minister of Reconstruction after World War I and later Foreign Minister. He was assassinated by two members of the fascist Eberhard Brigade who proclaimed: "Only a German shall a German leader be."
1867 JUDAH BEN SHALOM ( Yemen)
False Messiah. He claimed that he was the incarnate of Shukr ben Salim Kuhayl I and called himself Shukr ben Salim Kuhayl II. He actually “ remarried” the first Shukr’s wife, yet unlike the first Shukr he established a large court , and amassed a small fortune by demanding tithes from various communities. He was strongly condemned by Jacob Saphir the author of Even Sapir (see 1822)
1867 December 21, AUSTRIAN AUSGLEICH (Constitution)
The term Ausgleich referred to the compromise between Austria and Hungary
allowing for a dual monarchy. As part of the agreement, Hungary had to agree to enact the civil reforms already in place in Austria. These reforms became the Magna Carta for minority races in the Austrian Empire.
It included the right to hold office as well as freedom of occupation,
settlement, and religion. The original constitution, which was issued in
1610, had been annulled a few years later.
1868 - 1966 1868-1966 ANDRE SPIRE (France)
Poet and Zionist leader. Spire was born into an assimilated family and became a Jewish nationalist as an outcome of the Dreyfus Affair. He even fought a duel with Edouard-Adolphe Drumont, leader of the anti Semitic movement in France. During the Russian pogroms of 1956, he supported the Russo-Jewish self-defense organizations and organized the Association des jeunes Juifs for Jewish immigrants. Spire's main collection, Poemes juifs (1919, 1959), attacked assimilation and called for a Jewish revival.
1868 - 1941 EMANUEL LASKER (Germany-England)
A mathematician by profession, he was the foremost chess champion of his day. In 1892 he won his first major tournament in London. In 1894 he defeated Wilhelm Steinitz for the championship which he defended against Frank Marshall, David Janowski, and others. He held the championship until 1921 when he was defeated by Capablanca with ten draws and four losses. Lasker wrote two classic books on chess: "Common Sense in Chess" (1896) and "Lasker's Manual of Chess."
1868 - 1943 KARL LANDSTEINER (Austria)
Physiologist who discovered that there are four types of human blood. He received the Nobel Prize in medicine 1930.
1868 - 1924 NAHMAN SYRKIN (Belarus - USA)
Writer and early leader of Socialist Zionism, he organized the Poale Zion
(Zionist Labor Party - 1903). His ideals of socialism was one of morality
rather then Marxism. Syrkin was a strong supporter of Herzl's Uganda
scheme and temporarily left the Zionist movement. He immigrated to the United States in 1907 and became active in the American Jewish Congress and a member of the Jewish Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. He returned to the Zionist movement heading the Poale Zion until his death.
1868 December 3, SAXONY (Germany)
One of the last German states to give Jews full legal equality. Jews had been living in Saxony since the 10th century in towns like Magdeburg, Halle, and Erfurt. It was only one year before the inauguration of the North German confederation that they were given equality.
1869 SUEZ CANAL (Egypt)
Was completed and with that completion the Jewish population in Egypt began to grow, especially in Alexandria and Port Said. Most of the new immigrants came from the Near East and the Balkans.
1869 KNIGA KAHALA (THE BOOK OF THE KAHAL) (Russia)
Was published. This anti –Semitic work was written by Jacob Brafmann, a former Jew who converted of Russian Orthodoxy. Brafmann was commissioned by the Holy Synod to foster Christianity among the Jews. He was appointed professor of Hebrew at the Minsk seminar in 1860. In his fictionalized account of the working of the Kahal, he accused the Jews as being “the enemy within”. Despite protests and refutations it was printed with public funds and distributed free to all government offices. In the same vein he also published “Local and Universal Jewish Brotherhoods”. Both of these works found themselves incorporated into what would become the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
1869 - 1944 BARON ERNST ABRAHAM VON MANSTEIN (Witsburg Germany)
Jewish convert, conductor, artist , educator, and scholar. A descendant of an aristocratic German family, he married Francisca Bezold, also a convert. His brother's adopted son was the Nazi general Erich von Manstein. Manstein tried to emigrate to Eretz Israel a number of times, but was refused permission. During the war, the Germans deported most of the Jews of the town to Terezinstadt, and although he could have stayed, he joined them. After his death his nephew arranged for him to be buried in Witsburg. Ironically he was buried with a Nazi flag in the Christian cemetery. His body was re-interred in the Jewish cemetery in 1960.
1869 June 27, - 1940 EMMA GOLDMAN (Lithuania-USA)
Anarchist leader. Goldman edited the journal Mother Earth which dealt with the injustices of American society. She believed that the state hindered the achievement of personal freedom. Among her causes was was the freedom of birth control. Leon Czolgosz, who assassinated President McKinley, claimed that Goldman had a strong influence on him. Goldman was arrested and eventually deported but found living under the Bolsheviks equally distasteful. Among her works are Anarchism and Other Essays, My Further Disillusionment in Russia, and Living My Life.
1869 July 3, NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION WAS INITIATED (Prussia, Germany)
After the war of 1866 Prussia increased its territory to include Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, Saxony, etc. Under the initiative of the Liberal Party, full rights were extended to Jews, including serving in public positions. By April 16, 1871, this became Imperial Law and was extended to the entire empire. Although later reaction revoked most of this freedom, discrimination never returned to the level existing in the Middle Ages - until the rise of Hitler.
1869 October 20, MICHAEL BAKUNIN (1814-1876) (Russia)
In the article published in Le Reveil du Peuple, he attacked the Jews as being a "Nation of Exploiters". Bakunin was a revolutionist anti-Semite and one of the founders of anarchism. In his many articles, he emphasized that Jews controlled most of the commerce and banking in Europe and were the enemies of the proletariat. He viewed Rothschild and Marx as being two sides to the same coin.