1830 ABOLITION OF THE MORE JUDAICO (France)
The Jewish oath was abolished in France.
1830 - 1919 ABRAHAM JACOBI (Germany)
"Father of Pediatrics". In 1851 he was arrested and charged with treason for belonging to a revolutionary group. Two years later he was released and became a professor of children's diseases at the National Medical College.
1830 - 1909 LINA MORGENSTERN (Germany)
Educator and philanthropist. Morgenstern began her work by opening a school for the disadvantaged when she was only 18. She was active in many branches of philanthropy but most of her efforts went into education. She established the first free kitchens in Germany in 1866 as well as a society to help educate and defend the rights of women. She also authored a book on education Das Paradies der Kinderheit.
1830 - 1831 POLAND
Revolted against Russia. Even during the revolt, General Chlopicki expelled the Jews from the National Guard at the insistence of the officers. The Jews formed their own unit called "the Beardlings".
1830 - 1831 MAZZINI'S YOUNG ITALY
This revolution - in which many Jews took part - was defeated.
1830 July 10, - 1903 CAMILLE PISSARRO (France)
Of Sephardic extraction, he became an important Impressionist painter and teacher. He mostly painted the busy streets of Paris and landscapes. He was associated with Monet and Corot. In the last years of his life he achieved recognition, and although suffering from an eye ailment painted 160 works in the last three years of his life.
1831 EMANCIPATION OF JEWS IN JAMAICA
Jews had been present in Jamaica since the time of the British conquest in 1655, yet they were not allowed to vote until this date. Within fifteen years, eight of the 47 members of the House of Assembly (which didn't meet on Day of Atonement) were Jewish.
1831 - 1896 BARON MAURICE DE HIRSCH (France)
Banker and philanthropist, he tried at first to teach agriculture to Jews in Russia. When that failed, he established the Baron de Hirsch Fund of New York and later the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA). Both of these plans attempted to resettle the Jews in lands outside of Europe, especially Argentine rural areas, but both met with limited success. At the beginning of the 20th century the JCA also administered Baron Edmond de Rothschild's colonies in Eretz Israel. In 1873, Baron de Hirsch donated one million francs to the Alliance Israelite Universelle for its school system (see 1860).
1831 February 8, LOUIS PHILIPPE OF FRANCE
Successor to Charles X, he ratified a motion which put Judaism on a par with Christianity and granted state support to synagogues and their Minister of Religion.
1832 - 1924 ARMIN VAMBERY (Hungary)
Linguist and Oriental traveler. In order to travel thoughout Persia, Armenia and Turkestan he took the name Rashid Effendi, assumed and successfully maintained the guise of a Sunni dervish, and traveled to places which no westerner had ever visited before. His book "Travels in Central Asia" became very popular. Vambery was a strong supporter of British expansionism and also served as foreign consultant to the Sultan of Turkey. In that position, although not a Zionist, he introduced Theodore Herzl to the Sultan in 1901.
1832 BENEDICT STILLING (Germany)
Proposed that transplants of the retina could cure certain types of blindness.
Granted political rights to Jews.
Giuseppe Mazzini organized a new society called Young Italy which many Jews joined. Their goal was to unify Italy. Although they were defeated by the French, one of his followers was
Garibaldi, who later played an important role in unifying Italy.
1832 - 1911 SAMUEL MONTAGU, FIRST LORD SWAYTHLING (England)
Banker, and philanthropist. Actually born Montagu Samuel, his name was switched when he attended grade school. In addition to being a successful banker, he served in Parliament from 1885 for 15 years and was responsible for the adoption of the metric system (Weights and Measures Act). Montagu was actively involved in many projects helping the poor and founded the Jewish Workingmen's Club. He was a practicing Orthodox Jew and founded the Federation of Synagogues (1887) which united most of the smaller congregations.
1832 November 3, JOACHIM LELEWEL (Poland)
A non-Jewish Polish revolutionist and historian. He called on the Jewish people to join in a revolution. He was influenced by Bartlomiej Beniowski, a Jewish Polish revolutionary into calling on Poles to help Jews to establish a homeland in Eretz Israel.
Jews were allowed to be admitted to the Bar. Two years later in 1835 Francis Goldsmid became the first Jewish barrister.
1833 - 1904 JOSEF HAYIM Al-Chacham (Baghdad, Persia)
Jewish leader, Halachist and Chief Rabbi of Baghdad. Joseph Hayim is still known as one of the premier Halachists of the Sephardic community. He authored about 60 books on all aspects of Judaism; specifically halacha and aggadah (the part of the Talmud which does not deal with religious law - halacha). His major work was Ben Ish Chai which discusses the weekly portion of the Torah mixed with practical halacha and Kabbalah.
1833 October 29, HESSE-CASSEL (Germany)
Was formally made part of the kingdom of Westphalia. All Jews, except for peddlers and petty traders, were granted civic equality. The other German kingdoms took nearly forty years to grant civic equality to their Jews.
1834 July 15, THE INQUISITION (Spain)
Was finally abolished by the Queen Mother, Maria Christina, after nearly three and one half centuries.
1835 - 1909 CESARE LOMBROSO (Italy)
Father of modern criminology. His major work was entitled "Crime, Its Causes and Conditions". He also posited the theories that genius is a form of insanity and that criminal tendencies are hereditary. Lombroso later became interested in Zionism.
1835 DAVID SALOMON (1797-1873) (England)
Was the first Jew to be elected Sheriff of London. He was a successful banker who led the fight for Jewish equality in England. In 1855 he became Lord Mayor of London.
1835 THE FIRST HAKHAM BASHI (Ottoman Empire)
Was appointed by Sultan Mahmud II. The title was taken from the words Hakhan (chacham) meaning sage and Bashi meaning head. Ostensibly he served as the chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire or of parts of it. Often the Hakham Bashi himself was not sufficiently learned to also serve as a Halachic authority. In addition to religious responsibilities, he was also in charge of collecting government taxes.
1835 CZAR NICHOLAS I (Russia)
Similar to Catherine II, Nicholas ordered a Ukase (decree) which restricted the Pale even further banning Jews from living in a 25 mile zone along the western front as well as the cities of Kiev, Nikolaev and Sevastopol.
1835 - 1917 MENDELE MOCHER SFORIM (Shalom Jacob Abramowitz) (Russia)
Distinguished author and Haskalist (advocate of the Enlightenment Movement). His work focused on the life and problems of the Jewish masses in Russia. Although an unabashed champion of the simple Jew, he strongly criticized jewish life in the small towns and ghetto. At the same time he had no patience for what he saw as the trend in the Haskala for assimilation. Though he wrote in both Hebrew and Yiddish, he was renowned as the forerunner of populist Yiddish literature.
1836 LOUIS NAPOLEON (France)
Failed to capture Strasbourg and was exiled to America.
1836 SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH
Published his Nineteen letters of Ben Uziel. This short work was written as an exchange of letters answering basic questions about Judaism. The Letters became very popular and was translated into many languages.
1836 - 1900 WILLIAM STEINITZ (Prague, Bohemia)
Known as the "Father of Modern Chess". Steinitz began as a brilliant talmudic scholar with an interest in mathematics. He won the world championship in Vienna by defeating Adolph Anderssen in 1866, and held on to the title until 1894 when he in turn was defeated by Emanuel Lasker. Steinitz is credited with developing the theory of chess that is based on science and math.
1836 July 7, GALICIA
Joseph II, in an effort to improve the educational status of rabbis, decreed that no rabbis could be appointed if they did not attend a university. Little came of his decree.
1837 QUEEN VICTORIA (England)
Ascended the throne in England. During her reign there was a great increase in the number of Jews settling in England.
1837 - 1888 SAMUEL POLIAKOFF (Russia)
Railroad Baron. He built over 2500 Km of railroads as well as founding several banks. Though he refused to hire any Jews, he did, at the end of his life, play an active role in founding ORT and helped build the synagogue in St. Petersburg.
1837 January 1, ERETZ ISRAEL
An earthquake in Safed and Tiberias killed an estimated four thousand people, mostly Jews. Many monuments and archaeological sites were damaged.
1838 FIRST HEBREW PRIMER FOR CHILDREN (USA)
Was published by Isaac Leeser in the USA.
1838 - 1875 GEORGE BIZET (Paris, France)
Composer of the opera "Carmen". He studied under Jacques Halevy (composer of "La Juive") and married his daughter.
1838 - 1933 (24 Elul 5693) ISRAEL MEIR HACOHEN - THE CHAFETZ CHAIM (Hafetz Haim) (Radin, Poland)
A prominent talmudic leader and author, he wrote commentaries on the Sifra and Mussar. In all, he composed over thirty works on Jewish ethics and laws, especially concentrating on the need to beware of slandering or "promoting a bad name". His Magnum Opus was the Mishna B'rurah, a guide to Jewish law in modern times. Earning his living as a teacher and later founding a yeshiva, he consistently refused a rabbinical position. This was partly based on his belief that "he who hates gifts shall live".
1838 June 30, SWEDEN
The Swedish government passed a law abolishing discrimination against Jews. Unfortunately, this law was repealed due to public objections. Another 30 years were to pass before Jews were given the right to vote.
1839 CLOTHES TAX“ (Lithuania)
A special Jewish clothes tax was imposed in order to encourage Jews to forgo traditional dress. The right to wear a kippa cost five rubles a year.
1839 - 1915 (11 Elul 5675) ISAAC JACOB REINES (Belarus-Lithuania)
Founder of the Mizrachi Religious Zionist Movement. He founded an experimental yeshiva in which rabbis were trained to expound the Talmud and preach in Russian. The government closed it four years later. He became the rabbi in Lida and joined the Zionist movement in 1898. Reines was a strong backer of Herzl, even supporting his Uganda plan. His Mizrachi Movement was the first official religious Zionist party.
1839 March 27, FORCED CONVERSION AT MESHED (Persia)
Influenced by other anti-Jewish riots under the Kajar Dynasty in Persia, the local community attacked the Jewish quarter. The synagogue was destroyed, over 30 Jews were killed and the rest of the community was threatened with annihilation. Moslem leaders offered to prevent further riots on condition that the Jews convert, which they did. The Jews became known as Jadid al-Islam or New Moslems, thus ending the presence of a Jewish community in Meshed. In secret they continued to practices Judaism, taking whatever opportunities presented themselves to flee the city with their families.
1839 November 8, SULTAN ABD Al-MAJID 1823-1861 (Turkey)
Issued his declaration of rights known as the Hatt-i-Sherif. These new regulations were part of what was known as the Tanzimat ("reforms") which guaranteed equality of rights, security, and military service for all non-Muslim citizens.