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1790 - 1871 RACHEL LUZZATTO MORPURGO (Italy)

Hebrew poet, she was related to Moses Hayyim Luzzatto . Morpurgo was well educated and had studied the Talmud and the Zohar, as well as math and Italian literature. Her poetry published in the Hebrew journal Kokhavei Yitzhak ('Stars of Isaac'), established her as the first woman to have written modern Hebrew poetry . Some of her works were published in 1890 under the title Ugav Rahel ('Rachel’s Harp').


1790 - 1867 (19 Tishrei 5628) SOLOMON RAPOPORT (Lemburg, Germany - Prague, Bohemia)

Rabbi, historical researcher, and biographer of talmudic and post-talmudic personages. Among his other works, he edited the notes of Benjamin of Tudela and wrote about the independent Jewish tribes of Arabia and the Karaites. His works on Sa'adia Gaon, Hai Gaon, and Rabbi Natan (the Aruch) established a precedent in accurate chronology of Jewish history. He was one of the founders of the new The Society for Culture and Science of Judaism (see 1819).rnRapoport also began work on an encyclopedia Erech Milim but didn’t finish it.


1790 January 27, FRANCE

Active citizenship was extended to the "well born" Sephardic Jews of Bordeaux, who promptly bowed out of the fight for equal rights. They looked upon their poorer brothers in Alsace-Lorraine with contempt.


1791 - 1864 GIACOMO (Jacob) MEYERBEER (Germany)

Pianist and operatic composer, including Le Huguenots and Le Prophets. Meyerbeer was mainly associated with French Opera. Despite numerous obstacles placed in his way by many people, including Weber, he remained a proud and faithful Jew all his life.


1791 MENAHEM MENDEL LEFIN (LEVIN) (1749-1826) (Poland)

An early leader of the Haskalah Movement. He published a pamphlet in French promoting the reform of Polish Jewry. Lefin often wrote in Hebrew and even Yiddish. He believed that education was the best way of encouraging emancipation. Though strongly opposed to Hasidism, he nonetheless believed that Jewish tradition was vital for the preservation of Judaism.


1791 May 3, POLAND

While Austria and Russia fought against the Ottoman Empire and unrest mounted in Poland, King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatovski adopted a constitution turning Poland into a constitutional monarchy. The constitution itself did not change anything for the Jews, or even of the old class (feudalist) regime with the nobles rights remaining as they were. It was too little too late. Polish noblemen, who opposed the new constitution, invited Czarina Catherine II to send Russian troops which resulted in the second partition and the canceling of the constitution.


1791 September 27, FRANCE

On the last days of the National Assembly, a declaration was passed granting Jews full rights and citizenship. This is the first time that Jews were declared full citizens in a European country since the Roman Empire. This, after many delays and arguments against it, mainly led by the representative from Alsace Jean-François Rewbell.


1791 December 23, CATHERINE II (Russia)

Created the Pale of Settlement. Jews were squeezed out of the major cities and ports into the area known as White Russia. Even within the Pale, Jews were excluded from certain cities and Crown lands. The driving force behind the creation of the Pale were the merchants in Moscow, who demanded protection against Jewish competition.


1792 DEATH OF JOSEPH TEOMIM (Lemberg, Germany)

1792-1862 URIAH P. LEVY (USA)


1792 (7 Tamuz 5552) OSTROG (Poland)

Russian troops attacked the synagogue, mistaking it for a fortress. No one was hurt. In celebration, a "Purim Ostrog" was declared. A megillah was read on its anniversary.


1793 - 1864 ISAAC NOAH MANNHEIMER (Copenhagen, Denmark-Vienna, Austria)

Preacher, orator, and director of the Reform temple in Vienna. He refused the title of Rabbi and later (1848) was elected a member of the Austrian Reichstag.


1793 (1 Shvat 5553) ROME (Italy)

A tragedy was narrowly averted in the Jewish ghetto after a mob set fire to the ghetto gates. The riot was partially in reaction to the liberalism of the French Revolution and partly in response to a Jewish protest after two Jewish orphans were forcibly baptized. Only a fortunate downpour which put out the fire prevented the ghetto from catching fire. The day was celebrated as holiday by Roman Jews.


1794 - 1925 KAJAR DYNASTY (Persia)

A fanatical Shiite dynasty which continued the policy of declaring non-Moslems impure and worthy of persecution. Many Jewish communities were either driven out (Tabriz c. 1797) or forcibly converted (Meshed 1839). Eventually (in the 1860's) European Jews, hearing about their difficulties, began to exert international pressure to alleviate their plight.


1794 - 1886 LEOPOLD ZUNZ

A friend of Heine and Boerne and an eminent scholar. He sided with Frankel's reformers in a vote for tradition. Zunz founded (along with Krochmal) the Wissenschaft des Judentums (The scientific investigation of Judaism) in 1819. As an author, he pleaded for public (secular) recognition of Jewish literature, "Jewish Science". Zunz wrote a biography on Rashi, traced the development of liturgical literature, wrote Bible criticisms, and discoursed on many other subjects.


1794 June 23, POLAND

With the second partition of Poland, additional territory was added to the Pale which came to include parts of the Ukraine and the city of Kiev.


1794 September 17, THADDEUS (TADEUSZ) KOSCIUSZKO (Poland)

Praised the role played by Jews in his abortive revolt against Russia. Singling out Warsaw's Jews he wrote, "(they showed) to the whole world that when it comes to human rights they do not spare their blood". As part of his revolt he granted Joseph Aronowicz and Berek Joselowicz (see 1765) permission to form a Jewish legion. Five hundred men volunteered to a call to arms issued in Yiddish, and fought in Praga, a suburb of Warsaw.


1795 THIRD AND FINAL PARTITION OF POLAND

Russia, under Catherine II, defeated Kosciusco and swallowed what was left of the Ukraine and Lithuania. She then possessed 900,000 Jews. Prussia received Warsaw and its surrounding area while Galicia was given to Austria.


1795 - 1874 (5 Cheshvan 5634) ZEVI HIRSCH KALISHER (Germany-Prussia)

The foremost developer of a nationalistic religious philosophy, which he expounded in his Dreishat Zion (The Seeking of Zion). Kalisher was a student of Rabbi Akiva Eiger and served as an unpaid rabbi in the town of Thorn (now part of Poland). He believed that the return to Zion should be brought about by acts, not by waiting for the Messiah (see 1862. Once the Jews returned to Zion, then the Messiah would come. Kalisher was instrumental in encouraging the idea of establishing agricultural settlements as well as having Jews guarding them.


1796 - 1801 REIGN OF PAUL I OF RUSSIA

Due to the partitioning of Poland, he inherited most of the Jews in Eastern Europe. With the help of the nobility, Paul I initiated an investigation into the "problem" of the Jews. According to one of the proposals, Jews should be forced to accept family names, abandon distinctive dress, send all children to public schools after age 12, and be forbidden to participate in city government. The Jewish population of White Russia was to be evenly distributed within White Russia, with the rest transferred to other areas.


1796 - 1880 ADOLPH (ISAAC) CREMIEUX (France)

One of the most brilliant Jewish orators and advocates of the Revolution of 1848. On many occasions, he used his influence in the government to help his fellow Jews. He also helped found the Alliance Israelite Universelle. His son, however, converted to Christianity.


1796 ST. THOMAS (West Indies)

The synagogue Berakha ve Shalom u Gemilut Hassidim was founded and is still in existence today.


1796 April 17, EASTERN POLAND

After falling to Prussia in the third partition of Poland in 1795, the government enacted "The Regulation" which removed a number of regulations regarding occupations and domicile restrictions for Jews. This still left many of the old regulations in place, including that of not being able to marry under the age of 25, and then only upon proof of a fixed income.


1796 September 2, HOLLAND BECOMES THE BATAVIAN REPUBLIC

And granted equality to its 50,000 Jews.


1797 - 1856 HEINRICH HEINE (Germany)

German lyrical poet and essayist. He converted to Christianity in the hope of obtaining a professorship in German literature, calling it his admission ticket to European culture, but he denounced Eduard Gans as a scoundrel for converting. Heine referred to Judaism as one of the three evil maladies, the other two being poverty and pain. Notwithstanding this, he used his position to defend Jewish rights at times. Although he experienced personal rejection due to his Jewish past and pro-Napoleonism, his works (published in 21 volumes in 1863) achieved universal fame - notably for his wit and sarcasm. His famous Buch der Lieder (1827) included Auf Fluegeln des Gesanges (On Wings of Song), and the Lorelei.


1797 CHARLES JERRAM

A British clergyman published ‘Scriptural Grounds for expecting the Restoration of the Jews,’ Jerram (1770–1853) believed that the Bible supports the restoration of the Jews to their homeland.


1797 MURDER LIBEL IN GALATZ/GALATI (Romania)

Resulted in attacks throughout the community. Some Jews were forced into the Danube and drowned; others had taken refuge in the synagogue, which was set on fire.


1797 April 17, EASTERN POLAND

After falling to Prussia in the third partition of Poland in 1793, the government enacted "The Regulation", which removed a number of regulations regarding occupations and domicile restrictions for Jews. This still left many of the old regulations in place, including the one about not being able to marry under the age of 25, and then only upon proof of a fixed income.


1797 July 10, VENICE (Italy)

Less then two months after the French, under Napoleon, captured the city, the ghetto gates were torn down. A tree of liberty was erected while the local populace danced and celebrated. Then, with the active participation of the newly formed civic guard and some of the local priests, the gates were chopped up and burned. The ghetto was in existence for 281 years and 3 months.


1797 August 28, PADUA (Italy)

Four months after the entry of the French army, the provisional government decreed that "Jews are able to live in every part of the city." Jews enlisted in the National Guard and the main street in the ghetto was changed to Via Libera. Unfortunately, as in most parts of Italy, this newly won freedom only lasted until the arrival of Austrian troops 8 months later.


1798 - 1870 DOV BERESH MEISELS (Poland)

Rabbi, banker, and Polish nationalist. Meisels was a descendent of Moses Isserles and authored Chidushei Mahardam, a commentary on the Sefer ha-Mitzvot of Maimonides. He became rabbi of Cracow and later of Warsaw. Meisels supported Polish (Cracow) independence from Russia and Austria (where he became a member of parliament (see 1861)). These views led to his frequent expulsions and imprisonment by the Czarist authorities (see 1848). Upon his death, the Russian authorities even banned any obituaries for him in the press. His funeral in Warsaw was attended by thousands.


1798 - 1860 WARDER CRESSON (USA -Eretz Israel)

Born a Quaker he came to believe that God's plan was to bring all the Jews to Jerusalem before the "end of days". In 1846 he decided to move to Eretz Israel where Cresson converted in March 1848. When he returned to the USA to tie up his affairs, his wife and son tried to have him institutionalized. During the trial, at which he was acquitted, over 100 witnesses were called. Cresson divorced his wife and moved to Jerusalem. His goal was to set up a soup kitchen and encourage new methods of agriculture, in order that Jews need not rely on missionaries for any help. He took the name Michael Boaz Israel, married Rachel Moelano, and became a respected member of the Sephardic community. He is buried on the Mount of Olives.


1798 - 1839 EDUARD GANS (Germany)

Jurist and one of the founders (along with Zunz and others) of the Verein fuer Cultur und Wissenschaft der Juden (Society for Jewish Culture and Science). Gans' contribution to jurisprudence was a series of papers concerning the Jews of Rome and Roman Law.


1798 - 1878 JUDAH ALKALAI (Sarajevo-Jerusalem)

Rabbi, author, and precursor of modern political Zionism. Alkalai studied in Jerusalem before returning to a post as Rabbi in Zemun(near Belgrade). At age 76 he returned with his wife to live in Eretz Israel. Alkalai wrote many books Darkhei No'am (Pleasant Ways), Shalom Yerushalayim ( Peace of Jerusalem)(1840), Goral la-Adonai (A Lot for the Lord),(1857) and Minhat Yehuda (offering of Judah) (1843) . In them he discussed the idea of Teshuva (return) both spiritually and physically and was greatly influenced by Judah Bibas. He called on Jews to help finance the purchase of land from the Turks, the establishment of agricultural enterprises and the renewal of Hebrew as a spoken language.


1798 February 15, ROME (Italy)

After the occupation of Rome by General Berthier, the local republicans dethroned the Pope and Jews removed the yellow badge. Two days later, a tree of freedom was planted in front of the synagogue.


1798 July 1, SWITZERLAND

Special taxes on Jews were finally abolished.


1798 September 12, FRANCE

In the wake of the French capture of Mayence (1792), the gates of the ghetto were torn down. The Jews of Mayence remained French citizens until the end of the occupation in 1814.


1799 ITALY

With the uprising of the counter-revolutionary forces against Napoleon, the Jews, who had risen to his banner, were attacked everywhere.


1799 THE "DRY BAPTISM" INITIATIVE

Was proposed by David Friedlander as a compromise to help integrate into Christian society. Friedlander ( 1750-1884) was a successful banker, and considered to be the successor to Moses Mendelssohn. He proposed that Jews join the Lutheran church on a moral and ethical basis, without accepting the belief of Jesus as the messiah.


1799 February 25, NAPOLEON CAPTURED GAZA (Eretz- Israel)

This was his first encounter with "Palestinian" Jews. It is said that he offered "the re-establishment of ancient Jerusalem" as a Jewish homeland in return for Jewish loyalty.


1799 March 18, HAIFA WAS CAPTURED BY NAPOLEON

This marked the greatest extent of Napoleon's conquest of Eretz Israel. The next day the French reached Acre. It was sucessfully defended by both British warships and local towns people, including the Jewish inhabitants. By June, Napoleon gave up and returned to Egypt.


1799 April 20, NAPOLEON’S LETTER TO THE JEWISH NATION ( Eretz Israel)

As reported by Le Moniteur Napoleon called for Jews, as its “ rightful heirs”, to join him in freeing “Palestine”. Thus becoming the first (soon to be head of state) to propose the re-establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel.




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