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1770 - 1839 ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL “ASHKENAZI” OF SHKLOV (Belarus-Eretz Israel)

Talmudist and scholar. He was one of many the students of the Vilna Gaon who decided to move to Eretz Israel. In 1824 while lying very ill from cholera, he made a promise that if he survived he would write a definitive code of laws applying to Eretz Israel. He did survive and although his manuscript was destroyed in an earth quake he rewrote it. Pe'at ha-Shulchan (Corner of the Table) is one of the most important works examining all the laws that pertain to Eretz Israel.


1772 - 1837 CHARLES FOURIER (France)

Catholic anti-Semite; he vented his hatred for the Jews at every available moment.


1772 FRANKFURT (Germany)

Rabbi Pinhas Halevi Horowitz was appointed Rabbi in Frankfurt despite his Hasidic leanings. He held the position until his death in 1805.


1772 - 1812 HAKHMEI SHKLOV “Sages of Shklov” (Belarus)

Settled by students of the Vilna Gaon (see 1720) it became a major center for Talmudic and Halachic studies. The group of scholars were led by Binyamin Rivlin (1728-1810),and know as the Hakhmei ( Chachmei) Shklov . They were a powerful force in the anti-Hassidic movement. His son Hillel (1758-1838) eventually left with many of the Gaon’s disciples for Eretz Israel.


1772 - 1824 DAVID RICARDO (England)

Founded Political Economy as a science. His chief work was Principles of Politics and Taxation. Ricardo's theories provided the scientific basis for the rule of free trade.


1772 - 1811 (18 Tishrei 5571) NAHMAN BRESLOV “Bratslaver” (Medzhybizh –Uman, Ukraine

Simply known as Rebbi Nachman. He was the great-grandson of the Besht (the Baal Shem Tov). Nahman forged new , if controversial ideas regarding Hasidut. He strongly believed in the principle of the Tzaddik Hador (holy person of the generation) and Hibodedut (self-seclusion) in prayer. He also promoted the importance of confession to the Rebbe, but seems to have dropped it near the end of his life. He was against the developing dynastic concept in the Hasidic world. Nahman was opposed even within the Hasidic world, mainly by Rabbi Aryeh Leib of Shpola (1725–1812) aka the "Shpoler Zeide". None of his sons survived him. His works included Likutey Moharan (Collected Teachings of Our Teacher), Tikkun HaKlali (General Remedy), and Sippurei Ma'asiyot (Tales of Rabbi Nachman). Many of his works were edited by his disciple Nathan Sternhartz, who also wrote his biography Chayey Moharan.


1772 - 1795 POLAND WAS PARTITIONED

This was the first of three partitions (1772, 1794, 1795). The Ukraine went to Russia, Galicia to Austria (whose Jewish population now doubled), and Lithuania to Prussia. Thus Catherine II inherited many of the same Jews she was trying to be rid of. Each monarch made an effort to integrate and assimilate its Jews into the "State of Order" and central administration, thus abolishing self-rule for the most part.


1774 December 19, FRANCIS SALVADOR (USA)

Was elected to the first Provincial Congress of South Carolina which became the General Assembly in 1776 making him the first Jew to hold a State office. He was killed in August 1776 while fighting against British supported Cherokee Indians.


1775 - 1816 SAMUEL (Dutch Sam) ELIAS

Boxing champion and originator of the "uppercut". Though famous throughout his career, he died a pauper plagued with boxing-derived illnesses.


1775 - 1854 JUDAH TOURO (USA)

Merchant-philanthropist. Judah Touro moved to New Orleans at the age of 22 and became a successful trader. He enlisted in the War of 1812 under Andrew Jackson and was wounded in the defense of New Orleans. Touro never married but left large funds (estimated $500,000) for various philanthropic purposes. Some of them included completing the Bunker Hill monument, enclosing the Jewish Cemetery in Newport, Rhode Island, and numerous almshouses and Jewish congregations in New Orleans and other cities. His funds joined with Montefiore's to help build the first housing complex outside the walls of the old city of Jerusalem, Mishkenot Shananim.


1775 February 22, EXPULSION FROM THE WARSAW AREA

As Jews were generally not allowed to live permanently in Warsaw they had settled in the outlying areas including a settlement known as New Jerusalem. The local populace organized street attacks and their expulsion, taking over their property. Fifteen years later after the Jews had returned, they were once again attacked and expelled


1775 April 5, POPE PIUS VI (1775-98)

Partly in reaction to success of the reformation, he issued the Editto Sopra Gli Ebrei. The proclamation of Pope Pius VI reinstated all former anti-Jewish legislation. The 44 clauses included prohibitions against possessing talmudic writings and erection of grave stones. They also forbade Jews from passing the night outside the ghetto under pain of death. The regulations were in effect until the arrival of Napoleon's army 25 years later.


1775 September 28, STOCKHOLM (Sweden)

Aaron Isaac, a gem carver, became the first Jew to be granted the right of residence in Sweden. Within 3 years he was joined by 40 families.


C. 1776 - C. 1823 JEAN LAFITTE

Pirate and adventurer. Lafitte is mostly known for helping General Andrew Jackson in the war of 1812. Evidently his mother and maternal grandmother (Zora Nadrima), were crypto Jews, who had fled to France after his grandfather was executed by the inquisition.


1776 May 31, MANTUA (Italy)

Because Jews were not allowed to expand their housing outside the ghetto, they were forced to build vertically. Many times accidents occurred from weakened structures. On this occasion, two weddings held in the same house caused it to collapse. Twenty-eight women (including one of the brides) and three men were killed.


1776 July 4, DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

This document provided the basis for religious tolerance in most other countries. While there were less than 2,500 Jews within the colonies, approximately 600 Jews participated in the revolution including 24 officers and the great-grandfather of Supreme Court Justice Cardozo. Isaac Franks, David Salisbury Franks and Solomon Bush all attained the rank of lieutenant colonel. One company in South Carolina had so many Jews that it was called the "Jews Company".


1776 August 1, FRANCIS SALVADOR (USA)

Became the first Jew to die in the American Revolution at the age of 29. His exploits as an officer earned him the title of the "Paul Revere of the South." He lead an army of 330 men defending the frontier settlers against the Cherokee Indians, who had been incited by the British.


1777 - 1836 NATHAN MEYER ROTHSCHILD (Germany-England)

Famous for his Waterloo scoop in which he used carrier pigeons between England and Belgium to gain knowledge of the victory before anyone else. He expanded his father's bank into a world-wide firm.


1777 AFFAIR OF THE FALSE RECEIPTS (Alsace)

A local judge Francois Joseph de Hell, forged hundreds of receipts proving that peasants had repaid their debts to Jews. He publicly justified it as a legitimate means to protect the peasantry from the "Jewish oppressors". This led to the intervention of Moses Mendelssohn and his friend Christian Wilhelm von Dohm, who wrote his influential On the civic improvement of the Jews.


1777 LARGE IMMIGRATION OF HASDIM ( Eretz-Israel)

Menahem Mendal of Vitbist and Abraham of Kalisk arrived to Safed with a group of around 300 people. Different reasons are given for this large (for its time) immigration; some say the it was due to the persecution by the Mitnagdim(see 1720), others claim it had a messianic fervor and still claim it was for purely religious reasons. Many of them later moved to Tiberias.


1778 JUEDISCHE FREISCHULE "Jewish Free School" (Germany)

Was established by Isaac Daniel Itzig and his brother in law, David Friedlander(1750-1834). The school, which omitted Talmud and limited Hebrew studies, concentrated on math, German, French, and commercial courses. After 1806, non-Jewish students were accepted, and they soon became one-third of the student body. (Since Juedische Freischule was the the first Haskalah school established, many use this date to mark the beginning of the Haskalah (Enlightenment) Movement, whose initial aim was to "modernize" Judaism by opening it to European culture and specifically to a philosophy of rationality which was spreading throughout Europe. Jews were encouraged to adopt the manners, dress, and language of their host country. In the beginning there were Orthodox leaders who supported some of the educational aims of the movement. When it became apparent that the movement was leading to an anti-halachic and assimilationist direction, the Orthodox establishment banned the movement, and established its own educational response to it through Samson Rafael Hirsch and others.




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