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1680 MASECHET DERECH ERETZ ( Amsterdam)

A Jewish guide book written in Yiddish, was published by Shabbtai Ben Joseph Bass (see 1641). It included currency rates, weights and measures, as well as distances between cities, and special prayers for the traveler.rn


1680 - 1756 (14 Shvat 5516) JACOB JOSHUA FALK (Cracow-Galicia-Eastern Europe)

Known by the name of his most popular novellae work, Penai Yehoshua (Face of Joshua) on the Talmud (not to be confused with Joshua Heshel Ben Joseph's Pnai Yehosuah on the Shulchan Aruch 1578). After the death of his wife and family in a fire, he decided to apply himself totally to his studies and accepted the post of rabbi in Lemberg. There he fought against the influence of Sabbatianism. He also wrote Sefer Minchat Ani on the Talmud, and Klal Gadol, which deals with the idea of a majority in halachic issues.


1680 June 30, MADRID (Spain)

An Auto da Fe was held in honor of the marriage of Carlos II to Louis Marie d'Orleans. It lasted 14 hours and was the last time that a "royal" Auto was held. The king himself set light to the quemadero (burning place). His successor, Philip V, refused the "honor".


1682 - 1725 REIGN OF PETER I THE GREAT (Russia)

Although by no means a lover of Jews, he tried to enlighten Russian policies and make them on a par with those of Western Europe.


1682 May 10, LISBON (Portugal)

The largest Judaizing trial was held in Lisbon: 117 persons were judged within three days. One penitent included Anna Rodriguez of Chaves, who was 97.


1683 DEFINING THE "AGE OF REASON" ( Rome)

Cardinal Francesco Albizzi in his De inconstantia in jure admittenda vel non , determined that the age of reason for baptism is seven rather than twelve. This will allow the church to legally baptize any child over seven, if he in "any way" expresses his desire to do so, even without parental consent. This decision will be quoted by many Popes justifying the baptism of children.


1683 July 14, UHERSKY BROD (Moravia - Eastern Europe)

Hungarian rebels known as Kuruc attacked the town, killing most of its Jewish inhabitants. Many of the Jews were recent refugees expelled from Vienna in 1670. One of the victims was the Rabbi and Kabbalist, Nathan Nata Hannover, who had survived the Chmielniki attacks. He was the author of Yeven MeZulah, which dealt with Chmielnicki's massacres and Sha'arei Ziyyon, a collection of prayers for Tikun Hazot. The survivors fled to Hungary.


1684 August 20, PADUA (Italy)

Attack on the ghetto. During the war between Venice and Turkey, the Jews were accused of praying for the Turks during their attack on Buda (today: Budapest, Hungary). In actuality, it was the 9th of Av and all the Jews were in the synagogue mourning the destruction of the Temple. Soon after, the attack on the ghetto began. When the gates were opened to allow for an emissary to the Duke to leave, the crowd rushed in. As soon as the authorities heard about the disturbances, an order to forcibly curb them was given. The day of the order (10 Elul) became a day of thanksgiving, or Purim Buda.


1685 ENGLAND

After a number of minor persecutions the crown confirmed freedom of worship for the Jews.


1685 ISAAC CANTARINI (Italy)

Published Pahad Yizhak (Fear of Isaac), a rabbinical encyclopedia which also described the attacks on the Padua community the year before. For safety, he couched it in obscure language.


1685 CODE NOIR (Martinique)

Instigated by the French Jesuit governor Count de Blenac The “Black Code” was signed by King Louis XIV. According to the code, all Jews had to leave French held territories within three months or forfeit their property.


C. 1685 - 1732 JACOB CULI (Eretz Israel-Turkey)

Rabbi and commentator. In addition to his own writings Culi helped edit and publish the writing of the Chief Rabbi of Constantinople, Judah Rosanes (Parashat Derakhim), as well as the works of his grandfather, Moses ibn Habib. Yet his real fame lies in his easy-to-read commentary on the Bible that was originally written in Ladino, Me-Am Lo'ez. This enormously popular commentary brought to the masses, who didn't understand Hebrew, the Midrashic anecdotes and folklore behind each Torah portion. Although he only published a small amount of it in his lifetime, others took up his notes and completed the work after his death. It was later translated into Hebrew and even into English.


1686 BUDA (Budapest, Hungary)

During the fighting between the Ottoman and Austrian imperial forces, the Jews chose the side of the Turks. When the Austrians finally conquered the city, only 500 Jews survived and their quarter was sacked.


1686 JUDAH BEN ELEAZAR (Riba) (Persia)

Published Hovot Yehudah (Duties of Judah) dealing with faith and philosophy. Ben Eleazar was a physician, philosopher and astronomer, He was evidently forced to “convert” to Islam along with most of the community during the reign of Shah Abbas the second of the Safavid dynasty (1656-1662). Upon the Shah’s death, they were permitted to return to publicly practicing Judaism. He also produced works on astronomy and medicine.


1687 December 5, JACOB AND DAVID ROBLES ( New York City)

Petitioned for the granting of a “letter of denization” (rights of a settler) which would allow them both an exemption of imported property tax, and the ability to own and farm land.


1688 JOSEPH PENSO DE LA VEGA (Amsterdam, Holland)

Wrote the first Hebrew drama, Asirei Tikva (Prisoners of Hope) in which, in allegorical form, morality triumphed over evil.


1688 - 1755 YUSUF (Joseph b. Isaac) YAHUDI, (Bukhara)

Persian Poet who wrote in Hebrew characters. His many works include Haft Braderan ("The Seven Brothers") based on the Midrash of the martyrdom of seven brothers and their mother, as well as Mukhammas in praise of Moses. He was also a prolific translator and was responsible for translating many zemirot for Judeo-Persian songbooks.


1689 - 1697 NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES

Fighting erupted between the English and French along the northern border of New York. One of the first Jews known to have fought under the British flag was Joseph Isacks. Isacks, a butcher from New York, was an active member of the synagogue until his death at age 78.


1689 WORMS (Germany)

Louis XIV's troops set the Judengasse on fire.


1689 June 22, PRAGUE (Bohemia)

The Jewish quarter was destroyed by French troops who shelled the area. In one synagogue the roof caved in, killing the 100 people who had sought refuge there. Most of the population was taken in by their Christian neighbors until new shelters were built.


1689 October 26, FIRE IN SKOPJE, MACEDONIA

Was started under order of General Enea Silvio Piccolomini, who served in the Hapsburg army and led the attack to capture Kosovo from the Ottoman empire. He claimed he set fire to the city after an outbreak of cholera, others differ. The Jewish quarter and its synagogues were totally destroyed.




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