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1670 BENJAMIN LEVY (c. 1650-1704) (London, England)

Arrived in England and was credited with founding of the London Ashkenazi community. Levy became very wealthy as a broker and purchased the first Ashkenazi cemetery in 1696.


C. 1670 - 1744 MEIR EISENSTADT ( MaHaRaM ESH) (Poland)

Rabbi and talmudic scholar. He served as the Rosh Yeshiva in both Worms and Eisenstadt. Among his students was Jonathan Eybeshutz, who he raised after his father had died. His works include Panim Me'irot, and Or ha-Ganuz both on the Talmud, and Me'orei Esh, on the Pentateuch.


1670 January 18, METZ (France)

Raphael Levy, a peddler, was accused of killing a Christian child for sorcery and was tortured to death. A former Jew, Paul du Vallie, son of a renowned physician, leader in the Jewish community, helped to convict him. King Louis XIV later declared it to be "judicial murder" and demanded that all such cases be brought before the king's council.


1670 February 28, VIENNA (Austria)

Leopold I ordered Jews to be expelled within a few months. Although Leopold was reluctant to lose the large amount of taxes (50,000 Florins) paid by the Jews, he was persuaded to do so by Margaret, the daughter of, Phillip IV, the Spanish Regent and a strong follower of the Jesuits. (see 1630, Samuel Oppenheimer). Margaret blamed the death of her firstborn on the tolerance shown to the Jews.The last Jews left on the 9th of Av.


1670 August 8, VIENNA (Austria)

Leopold I, after evicting the Jews, sold the Jewish quarter for 100,000 florins, which was then renamed Leopoldstadt in his honor. The synagogue and the bet midrash (talmudic study hall) were turned into St. Margaret's Church.A tablet was placed into the foundation stating that it was now a temple dedicated to God, and not “a murderers pit”.


1671 BARBADOS (The Carribean)

Under Lord Willoughby and approximately 50 years after the British occupation of the island, Jews were granted freedom to worship without any restrictions. Later, jealous rival merchants sometimes succeeded in temporarily imposing disabilities, usually in the form of higher taxes or trade restrictions.


1671 May 21, FREDERICK WILLIAM "THE HOHENZOLLERN" (The Great Elector) (Germany)

Became the Margrave of Brandenburg. On September 10 of that year, he re-admitted 50 wealthy Jewish families from Austria to the capital, Berlin. Although they were permitted to live and trade where they wished, they had to pay a protection tax of 8 Thalers per person per year and a gold florin for every wedding and funeral. In addition, Jews were not allowed to sell their houses to other Jews, and were permitted to have prayer rooms, but no synagogues.


1672 September 23, SATANOW (Poland)

One of the few Polish towns to have escaped harm was captured by the Cossacks.


1673 February 11, ENGLAND

According to the Conventicle Act of 1664, any prayer meeting of more the five persons that was not according to the Book of Common Prayer would be considered seditious. The act had been originally designed as a device against the Puritans, but soon Jews were prosecuted as well. The Jews requested from the King to either be allowed freedom of worship or to be allowed to leave the country with their possessions. Charles II ordered the Attorney General to desist from prosecuting the "offenders".


1674 October 3, PORTUGUESE INQUISITION

Against the Maranos was temporary suspended by pope Clement X. Unfortunately it continued unabated in Spain, and was reintroduced into Portugal by the next pope, Innocent XI in 1681.


1675 August 2, AMSTERDAM (Holland)

The new synagogue "Talmud Torah" was inaugurated with a great ceremony. Amsterdam had over four thousand Jewish families at that time. The synagogue is still in existence today.


1678 YEMEN

Iman-Ahmed he Hassan offered Jews the choice of either converting or being expelled to a hot barren land near Aden known as Mawza. The iman also closed all synagogues and prohibited public prayer by Jews. They were allowed to return one year later, though it is estimated that 2/3 of them did not survive the year. Upon their return, they found their homes occupied by Moslems. Many of the smaller communities disappeared and were not rebuilt. Among the exiles was Shalem (Shalom) Shabazi, who wrote over 550 historical, ethical and religious poems. He is considered the greatest Yemenite Jewish poet.


1679 - 1756 (23 Cheshvan 5517) ISAAC HEZEKIAH BEN SAMUEL LAMPRONTI (Italy)

Rabbi, educator and physician, Lampronti served as head of the Yeshiva in Ferrara where he developed a reputation for innovative educational ideas. He kept his practice as a physician even while serving as a Rabbi, refusing to accept payment for his services from those who could not afford them. Lampronti is renowned for his Pachad Yitzchak, a halachik Encyclopedia arranged in alphabetical order


1679 JOSEPH ATHIAS (Amsterdam)

Published a Yiddish translation of the Bible. He began his printing house in 1658.


1679 MINSK (Lithuania)

King John III Sobieski confirmed the right of the Jews to own real estate and engage in all trades and commerce, despite the opposition of the local population. These rights were confirmed again in 1722 and led to a relatively peaceful situation for the Jews in the city during those two centuries.




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