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1660 CHARLES STUART (Charles II) (England)

Earlier that year, Thomas Violet had petitioned the London city council and the King demanding the re-expulsion of all Jews. King Charles, who recently regained the English throne, sent a Royal message to Parliament asking them to take the protection of the Jews into consideration. The Violet's petition was rejected.


1660 - 1742 EZRA HA-BAVLI (Iraq)

Rabbi and Hebrew poet. Ha-Bavli had a extraordinary knowledge of the Bible, and Talmud. He was renowned for his Tokhaḥot Musar(Moralistic Reproofs) an ethical guide and Netivot Shalom ( Paths of Peace), which included moral rebukes, sermons, and interpretations of the bible.


C. 1660 - 1746 JEHIEL BEN SOLOMON HEILPRIN (Lithuania)

A scholar and historian as well as rabbinical leader and dean of the yeshiva in Minsk, he is best remembered for his Seder ha-Dorot, which set the talmudic era in order, both chronologically and biographically.


1660 - 1718 (11 Iyar 5478) ZEVI ASHKENAZI, MANAH ZEVI (Moravia)

Fled Vilna on the arrival of the Cossacks. He left Buda in 1686 after his wife and sons were killed during the siege. Arriving in Sarajevo, he became the rabbi and started a school in Alfona. Zevi served as rabbi in Amsterdam, London and Lemberg, and was an opponent of Shabbetai Zevi. His son, Yaakov Emden, later became a famous scholar and was involved in a controversy over Shabbetai Zevi with Jonathan Eybeshutz.


1660 April 13, ANTONIO ENRIQUEZ BASURTO (Spain-Holland)

A captain in the Spanish army, poet and one of Spain's greatest comedy playwrights, he was burned in effigy after fleeing with his son to Amsterdam. When told of his burning effigy, he commented "They are welcome to it."


1660 September, CAYENNE ISLAND (present French Guyana)

A boat with Jews from Amsterdam and Brazil tried to land. The Dutch governor Jan Classen Langedijk refused them permission. This despite that a charter had been signed between the West India Company David Nassy on September 12 1659, allowing for the establishment of a Jewish community. The governor also tried to extort money making false claims against the group. Only following the intervention of the local population (including the Indians), did he relent. One of their most successful products was vanilla extract. The capture of the island by the French just 4 years later, spelled the end of the prospering community.


1661 SHAH ABBAS II (Persia)

Five years after he forcibly converted or expelled the Jews, he reversed his decision. This was mainly due to the loss of revenues previously collected from Jews ( Jizya). He allowed them to return to openly practice Judaism in return for them resuming the payment of the poll tax and wear a distinctive mark on their clothing.


1663 ANTI JEWISH RIOTS (Istanbul)

Two Janissaries (elite guards of the Sultan) of Christian origin accused Istanbul Jews in the Balat neighborhood of killing the child of one of them, (who in reality had killed his own son). In the riot that ensued local Greeks killed almost twenty Jews and ransacked the Jewish commercial center. The two guards was eventually arrested and killed upon orders of the Sultan Mehmed IV.rnrn


1663 FRA VINCENTE DE ROCAMORA (Spain-Amsterdam)

The confessor of the Infanta Maria of Spain and the Empress of Austria. He disappeared, but soon turned up in Amsterdam, where he changed his name to Isaac and became a prominent physician.


1663 April, NEW FRANCE (later Canada) becomes a royal province

Under Louis XIV (1638 – 1715). According to his proclamation only Roman Catholic's were allowed to settle there. Although a single Jewish woman did try ( see 1738), she was deported. It was only in 1760 after the French and Indian War, that the first Jews (probably British soldiers) were allowed to establish a community.


1663 December 13, MATTATHIAS CALAHORA (Poland)

A renowned physician and scholar, had been accused by Friar Servatius of being the author of an anti Christian pamphlet found in a Dominican church and written in German. The Cracow court condemned him to death. His lips were cut off , his tongue cut out, and then burned alive. His ashes were dispersed to prevent him from having a proper Jewish burial. Despite this, enough of his remains were found for a burial to take place. He did not know any German.


1664 ENGLAND

The Sephardi community drew up regulations for Jewish communal organizations. They were known as the Ascamot or Agreement. The original document was written in Portuguese. One of the regulations against the founding of another synagogue was later to cause controversy.


1664 SHAAREI TIVKA “GATES OF HOPE" ( London)

Sephardic boys school, opened in London. It originally only taught Hebrew subjects, but added English and math in 1736.


1664 May, LVOV

Jews, learning about an impending attack by Jesuit seminary students and the Cathedral school, prepared a defense of the ghetto. The local official sent in the militia to ostensibly restore order. Instead, they joined the rioters, killing about 100 Jews.


1664 May 9, LEMBERG AND CRACOW (Poland)

Anti-Jewish riots by students and peasants resulted in damages and death in both communities. In Lemberg, the synagogue was attacked on the Sabbath and the Cantor was murdered.


1664 September, NEW AMSTERDAM (North American Colonies)

Was occupied by the British and its name changed to New York. The rights won by the Jews under Dutch rule were preserved, although they were still not allowed to join a guild or engage in retail trade. Each colony was free to decide which rights to grant the Jews. In many cases they were even less then those granted in England.


1665 May 31, SHABBETAI ZEVI (Ottoman Empire)

Under the coaching of Nathan of Gaza, he proclaimed himself the Messiah.


1665 August 17, GRANT OF 'PRIVILEGES' (Suriname)

The British colonial government with the support of Henry Willoughby and Lieutenant General William Byam granted a special charter to the Jewish community which included; freedom of religion, permission to build synagogues and schools, as well as the right to their own court of justice. In Jamaica Jews would only attain full rights in 1831, and in Barbados in 1802. The first synagogue and a school were built in 1671 at Cassipora.


1665 August 17, SURINAM

The small colony, recently occupied by the English, gave full rights to the Jews (mostly Spanish and Portuguese refugees) to practice Judaism and run their own affairs. This remarkably liberal charter was transferred over to the Dutch when they conquered the colony as a means of encouraging the Jews to remain.


1666 ENGLAND

The first Anglo-Jewish charity, Hebra (Chevra) of Bikur Holim was set up for visiting the sick.


1666 September 14, SHABBETAI ZEVI (Ottoman Empire)

The Sultan, aware that by killing Shabbetai Zevi would turn him into a martyr, "convinced" Zevi that converting to Islam was in his best interest. On this day, he was brought before the Sultan where be took off his Jewish head dress and replaced it with Turkish turban. The repercussions of his conversion sent shock waves throughout the Jewish world and were to be felt for many years. Some of his followers claimed that it wasn't really him who converted. Others professed that, by going to Islam to redeem them as well, he had proved that he was the Messiah.


1666 December 9, EXCOMMUNICATION OF NATHAN OF GAZA (Constantinople)

Shabbetai Zevi's foremost "prophet" was excommunicated by the rabbinical council in Constantinople.


1667 July 31, TREATY OF BREDA ( Breda, Netherlands)

Signed between England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark, ended the second Anglo-Dutch War. Under the treaty England received the Dutch provinces in the New World, and guaranteed full rights of worship trade and property to its inhabitants including the Jews. Jews were as yet forbidden to build synagogues.


1668 January 28, POPE CLEMENT IX (1667-1669) (Italy)

Cancelled the humiliating forced races of near naked Jews through the streets of Rome during Saturnalia carnival time (known as the Palio). In return for this revocation, the Jews of Rome had to pay a special cancellation tax of 200 ducats. This tax was paid for almost 200 years.The races had been first introduced by Pope Paul II in 1466.


1668 October 23, BARBADOS

The local British colonists passed "Jewish laws,ā€¯ Theses determined where Jews could live and what commerce they could engage in, including a ban on retail trading.. Jews were forbidden from owning more than one slave, or employing Christians which prevented them from running a plantation. The Laws remained in effect until 1802.


1669 CAROLINAS (North American Colonies)

"Jews, heathens and dissenters" were granted liberty of conscience.


1669 (8 Iyar 5429) PURIM CHIOS (Aegean Island)

The Venetian armies' attack on the island, which had a sizeable number of Jews, was beaten off. In commemoration, the local Jews instituted an annual celebration.


1669 June 19, MICHAEL I ELECTED KING OF POLAND

June 19 1669 MICHAEL I ELECTED KING OF POLAND By the nobility and perceived as malleable to their wishes. Michael I (1640-1673) tried to restore protections and previous agreements to the Jews. He was opposed by the Diet, which was controlled by the clergy and the lesser nobles, and who wanted more restrictions ;" in order that the perfidy and self-will of the Jews should not gain the upper hand". His reign lasted a little more than four years when he died suddenly of food poisoning.




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