1660 CHARLES STUART (Charles II) (England)
Earlier that year, Thomas Violet had petitioned the London city council and the King demanding the re-expulsion of all Jews. King Charles, who recently regained the English throne, sent a Royal message to Parliament asking them to take the protection of the Jews into consideration. The Violet's petition was rejected.
1660 - 1746 JEHIEL BEN SOLOMON HEILPRIN (Lithuania)
A scholar and historian as well as rabbinical leader and dean of the yeshiva in Minsk, he is best remembered for his Seder ha-Dorot, which set the talmudic era in order, both chronologically and biographically.
1660 - 1718 (11 Iyar 5478) ZEVI ASHKENAZI, MANAH ZEVI (Moravia)
Fled Vilna on the arrival of the Cossacks. He left Buda in 1686 after his wife and sons were killed during the siege. Arriving in Sarajevo, he became the rabbi and started a school in Alfona. Zevi served as rabbi in Amsterdam, London and Lemberg, and was an opponent of Shabbetai Zevi. His son, Yaakov Emden, later became a famous scholar and was involved in a controversy over Shabbetai Zevi with Jonathan Eybeshutz.
1660 April 13, ANTONIO ENRIQUEZ BASURTO (Spain-Holland)
A captain in the Spanish army, poet and one of Spain's greatest comedy playwrights, he was burned in effigy after fleeing with his son to Amsterdam. When told of his burning effigy, he commented "They are welcome to it."
1663 FRA VINCENTE DE ROCAMORA (Spain-Amsterdam)
The confessor of the Infanta Maria of Spain and the Empress of Austria. He disappeared, but soon turned up in Amsterdam, where he changed his name to Isaac and became a prominent physician.
1663 December 13, MATTATHIAS CALAHORA (Poland)
A renowned physician had been accused by Friar Servatius of "blaspheming the virgin" Although there was no testimony aside from the Friars , he was tortured and burned at the stake. His ashes were dispersed to prevent him from having a proper Jewish burial. Despite this, enough of his remains were found for a burial to take place.
The Sephardi community drew up regulations for Jewish communal organizations. They were known as the Ascamot or Agreement. The original document was written in Portuguese. One of the regulations against the founding of another synagogue was later to cause controversy.
1664 May, LVOV
Jews, learning about an impending attack by Jesuit seminary students and the Cathedral school, prepared a defense of the ghetto. The local official sent in the militia to ostensibly restore order. Instead, they joined the rioters, killing about 100 Jews.
1664 May 9, LEMBERG AND CRACOW (Poland)
Anti-Jewish riots by students and peasants resulted in damages and death in both communities. In Lemberg, the synagogue was attacked on the Sabbath and the Cantor was murdered.
1664 September, NEW AMSTERDAM (North American Colonies)
Was occupied by the British and its name changed to New York. The rights won by the Jews under Dutch rule were preserved, although they were still not allowed to join a guild or engage in retail trade. Each colony was free to decide which rights to grant the Jews. In many cases they were even less then those granted in England.
1665 May 31, SHABBETAI ZEVI (Ottoman Empire)
Under the coaching of Nathan of Gaza, he proclaimed himself the Messiah.
1665 August 17, SURINAM
The small colony, recently occupied by the English, gave full rights to the Jews (mostly Spanish and Portuguese refugees) to practice Judaism and run their own affairs. This remarkably liberal charter was transferred over to the Dutch when they conquered the colony as a means of encouraging the Jews to remain.
The first Anglo-Jewish charity, Hebra (Chevra) of Bikur Holim was set up for visiting the sick.
1666 September 14, SHABBETAI ZEVI (Ottoman Empire)
The Sultan, aware that by killing Shabbetai Zevi would turn him into a martyr, "convinced" Zevi that converting to Islam was in his best interest. On this day, he was brought before the Sultan where be took off his Jewish head dress and replaced it with Turkish turban. The repercussions of his conversion sent shock waves throughout the Jewish world and were to be felt for many years. Some of his followers claimed that it wasn't really him who converted. Others professed that, by going to Islam to redeem them as well, he had proved that he was the Messiah.
1666 December 9, EXCOMMUNICATION OF NATHAN OF GAZA (Constantinople)
Shabbetai Zevi's foremost "prophet" was excommunicated by the rabbinical council in Constantinople.
1667 July 31, TREATY OF BREDA ( Breda, Netherlands)
Signed between England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark, ended the second Anglo-Dutch War. Under the treaty England received the Dutch provinces in the New World, and guaranteed full rights of worship trade and property to its inhabitants including the Jews. Jews were as yet forbidden to build synagogues.
1668 January 28, POPE CLEMENT IX (1667-1669) (Italy)
Cancelled the humiliating forced races of near naked Jews through the streets of Rome during carnival time (known as the Palio). In return for this revocation, the Jews of Rome had to pay a special cancellation tax of 200 ducats. This tax was paid for almost 200 years. The races were first introduced by Pope Paul II in 1464.
1669 CAROLINAS (North American Colonies)
"Jews, heathens and dissenters" were granted liberty of conscience.
1669 (8 Iyar 5429) PURIM CHIOS (Aegean Island)
The Venetian armies' attack on the island, which had a sizeable number of Jews, was beaten off. In commemoration, the local Jews instituted an annual celebration.