1650 BENJAMIN D'ACOSTA (Carribean)
Introduced the sugar cane cultivation industry to Martinique.
A Jewish merchant by the name of Jacob opened the first coffee house at Oxford and is credited with being the first to introduce coffee to the English public.
1650 MENASSEH BEN ISRAEL (Holland)
Dedicated the Latin edition of his book The Hope of Israel to the English Parliament. Menasseh asserted in his book that the American Indians were the descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes.
1650 - 1726 NEHEMIA HAYUN (Holland)
Kabbalist imposter and Sabbatian. His theory on the trinity caused an uproar in the Amsterdam community. He was supported by Salamon Ayllon and opposed by Haham Zevi.
1650 - 1726 NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES
First wave of immigration. The Jewish population rose to ten thousand.
The first group of Jews led by JoCo de Yllan from Portugal tried to settle on this island, which was captured by the Dutch in 1634 from the Spanish. The effort failed due to the difficult agricultural conditions, as did a second attempt a few years later. The third attempt succeeded, and a group of 70 Jews who were led by Isaac da Costa, called their community "Mikve Yisrael".
1651 July 1, POLAND
Was victorious over the Cossacks. The Jews were allowed to return to their lands.
1652 December 1, MANUEL FERNANDES VILLAREAL (Portugal)
One of the foremost diplomats and men of letters of his day, he was garroted by the Inquisition. Villareal, who served as the council general in Paris, was a friend of Cardinal Richelieu and an author of some reknown. On a visit to Lisbon he was arrested and accused of practicing Judaism, which he did not deny.
1653 JACOB CHRISTIAN BASNAGE (France)
A Protestant pastor, he wrote the first complete history of the Jews. This later served as a basis for the works of Jost and Graetz.
1653 NATHAN BEN MOSHE HANNOVER (Italy)
Published Yeven Metzolah (Pit of Mire) based on eyewitness accounts of the Chmielniki pogroms. It was translated into many languages, including English ("Abyss of Despair", 1950).
1654 CZAR ALEXIS (Russia)
Joined with Charles X of Sweden and Chmielniki to attack White Russia and Lithuania. The Cossack region was annexed by the Moscovite Empire.
1654 January 26, PORTUGAL
With the capture of Pernambuco (Recife) from the Dutch, Portugal retook Peru and Brazil. The Jews, having fought on the side of the Dutch, fled by the hundreds to North America, especially to New Amsterdam.
1654 June 29, CUENCA (Spain)
57 Marranos were taken to the Auto da Fe; ten were burned to death. One of them, Balthasar Lopez, announced as he was taken to the stake "I don't believe in Christ even if you bind me." He had returned recently from Bayonne to persuade his nephew to return to Judaism when he was captured by the Inquisition.
1654 July 8, JACOB BARSIMSON (North American Colonies)
Left Holland aboard the Peartree for New Amsterdam and landed there on August 22. He was considered the first Jewish resident of New Amsterdam (New York). A month later, on September 23, Jews who had sailed from Brazil joined him.
The British took the island from Spain and were welcomed by the Marranos, who began to openly acknowledge their Jewish religion. In the same year they founded a synagogue at Port-Royal.
1655 LUBLIN (Poland)
A force comprised of Cossacks and Russians led by Peter Ivanovich offered to leave the city alone if it surrendered and paid a heavy fine. The Jews, knowing what would happen to them, paid local people to hide them. The local leaders agreed to the offer, only once they were allowed in, the local inhabitants told the Cossacks where the Jews were hiding. Two thousand were slaughtered.
1655 April 26, ENGLAND
Menasseh ben Israel was invited to London by Oliver Cromwell to negotiate the resettlement of the Jews. William Prynne succeeded in officially postponing the resettlement for a couple of years. Cromwell's change of heart was partly due to the rise of Puritanism, which emphasized literal application of the Old Testament.
1655 April 26, THE WEST INDIA COMPANY (North American Colonies)
Refused to accept Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant's request to ban the settling of Jews in New Amsterdam. In their letter, they relate to the "large amounts of capital which the Jews have invested in the shares of this company" therefore "these people (Portuguese Jews) may travel and trade...live and remain there provided the poor shall not become a burden to the company or the community."
1655 July, ENGLAND
Abraham Israel Carvajal and his two sons received residency rights (endenizened) as "crypto Jews" thus becoming the founder of the (Marrano) London Jews community. Carvajal (c.1590-1659) was an important trader whose wide connections provided Oliver Cromwell with vital information concerning both the Spanish government and the exiled Stuart, Charles.
1655 August 8, RUSSIA
The Russians took Vilna. As part of the peace settlement between Chmielniki and Czar Alexis, the east bank of the Dnieper became part of the kingdom of Moscow. The Jews of Vilna were once again subject to expulsion and murder.
1655 December 4, WHITEHALL (England)
The question of the re-admittance of the Jews was brought to a conference of notables. The judges decided that there was no statute which excluded the Jews from the country. Cromwell dissolved the commission, considering it too pro-admittance.
1656 PERSIAN EXPULSION
Abbas II forced the Jews to either convert or be expelled. Many Jews accepted Islam on the outside, but continued to practice Judaism in secret similar to their brethren 150 years earlier in Spain.
1656 March 24, ENGLAND
After the outbreak of the English-Spanish war, Jews living in England petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to stay in England, insisting that they were Maranos, not Spaniards. Although Cromwell chose not to reply officially, he permitted the community to establish a Jewish Cemetery, and to have protection during prayers. His unwritten agreement was conditioned on there being no public Jewish worship. This is considered by many to mark the official end of the expulsion of the Jews from England.
1656 May 16, ENGLAND
Antonio Robles, a successful Marrano merchant, had his goods confiscated at the outbreak of the war with Spain. Robles contended that he was a Portuguese "of the Hebrew nation" and not Spanish - and therefore his property should be returned to him. In this landmark case the Council decided in his favor, strengthening the position of the community and opening the door for allowing Jews to live in England as Jews.
1656 June 14, WEST INDIA COMPANY
Its Directors ordered Peter Stuyvesant to permit the Jews to trade and own real-estate in New Amsterdam.
1656 July 27, SPINOZA (Holland)
Was excommunicated in Amsterdam. Spinoza had been accused - together with Juan de Prado - of denying the being of Angels, the immortality of the soul and that the Torah was given by God. De Prado apologized but Spinoza refused to do so. The council forbade anyone to communicate with him in any fashion or to read any of his books.
1656 October 4, LECZYCA (Lenshitz, Poland)
During what was known as the Russo-Swedish wars, Jews from the surrounding area took refuge behind the city walls. The Polish army attacked after the local garrison fled to the castle, leaving the Jews to the mercy of the attacking forces. Between 2-3000 Jews were murdered and hundreds of Torah scrolls were destroyed, many of which had been brought to the city by the refugees.
1657 SPALATO (Split, Croatia)
Jews had lived in this city since the third century. During the Turkish attacks against Venetian rule, the Jews so distinguished themselves that one of the city's towers became known as the "post of the Jews".
1657 April 20, ASSER LEVY (New Amsterdam, North American Colonies)
After a battle of almost two years Asser Levy, one of the original 23 settlers, was allowed to serve on guard duty ("watch and ward"). Levy, who was the ritual slaughterer of the town, opened his slaughterhouse on what is now Wall Street. He also petitioned to be allowed the rights as a Burgher or freeperson of the town, which he received (albeit reluctantly and as a "second class" Burgher) from the burgomasters of New Amsterdam.
1658 NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND (North American Colonies)
Fifteen Jewish families from Holland were accepted in what was then the most important port on the northeast Atlantic coast.
1658 February 23, MARYLAND (North American Colonies)
Jacob Lumbrozo, a doctor and the first Jew known to have settled in the colony, was arrested under the Toleration Act of 1649 (act concerning religion). This act imposed the death penalty for anyone denying the basic tenants of Christianity. Though Lumbrozo was saved by a general amnesty, proclaimed by Richard Cromwell it was not until the "Jew Bill" passed in 1826 that Jews could hold public office without submitting to a Christian oath.rnrn
The Dutch West India Company granted a charter to David Cohen Nassi for a Jewish settlement. The charter allowed for "freedom of conscience, public worship, synagogue, and school". This lasted only until the Dutch cession to the French in 1664. Though the French promised to continue the Dutch policy, they soon (1671) outlawed all public worship of Judaism.