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1610 CRACOW JEWISH COUNCIL

Advised that bagels are an appropriate gift for those about to give birth. although this is the first documented usage of the bagel it is similar to obwarzanek which were among the breads that Jews were forbidden to sell within the city walls according to a edict in 1496.


C. 1610 JACOB CURIEL ( Koriel) (Portugal- Eretz Israel)

A former pirate, arrived in Eretz Israel. He had served as a captain on a Spanish ship before being arrested by the inquisition for being a crypto-Jew. Curiel aka Diego Perez D'acosta ( was freed by his sailors many of them Conversos (Marranos) whose families had suffered at the hand of the inquisition. Curiel plied the waters of the Caribbean with three ships attacking mostly Spanish vessels. According to Hayyim Vital he became repentant, moved to Safed and is buried near the Ari (Rabbi Isaac Luria).


1610 - 1695 (4 Iyar 5458) JACOB SASPORTAS (Oran, Morocco-Amsterdam, Holland)

Kabbalist and rabbi and a fierce opponent of Shabbetai Zevi. He served as envoy to the Spanish court in Morocco and later became head of the yeshiva in Amsterdam. In his battle against Sabbatianism he produced Tsitsit Novel Zvi in which he collected vast material, including pamphlets and letters, and answered it in detail.


1610 December 24, NETHERLAND AND MOROCCAN

Commercial treaty was signed. Much of it was sue to the efforts of Samuel Pallache the diplomat/pirate (1550) . This was one of the first treaties signed between a Christian and Moslem country.


1612 November 7, HAMBURG (Germany)

The Senate decided to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition that there be no public worship. Portuguese Jews had been living there for over 40 years under the guise of officially being Catholic.


1614 August 22, (27 Elul 5372) FRANKFURT (Germany)

Vincent Fettmilch, a former pastry cook and leader of "the guilds", calling himself the "new Haman of the Jews", attacked the synagogue while the community was at prayer. Although many tried to organize a defense, they were soon overpowered and many took shelter in the cemetery while the community was destroyed. He and his accomplices were hung and quartered for their actions two years later.


1614 August 24, FRANKFURT (Germany)

The Jews were allowed to leave but without any property. 1,380 Jews left. To the credit of some of the Christian inhabitants, many Jews were given shelter in neighboring small communities.


1615 PADUA (Italy)

Despite church protests, non-Catholics were officially allowed to study at the university famed for its medical facilities, though at a far higher fee then regular students. Though it was rare, some Jews succeeded in attending by paying heavily for the right, the first being Benaia di Nigro in 1409. It is estimated that during the 16th and 17th centuries approximately 10% of the student body was Jewish.


1615 THOMAS BRIGHTMAN’S BOOK (England)

Shall They Return to Jerusalem Again? , was published posthumously. Brighton (1562-1607), an English clergyman, supported the return of the Jews to the Holy Land'. “There is nothing more certain: the prophets do everywhere confirm it and beat upon it.”


1615 April 20, (21 Nissan 7th day of Passover) JEWS BANISHED FROM WORMS (Germany)

With the encouragement of the Guilds, the Jews were forced from the city during the holiday and the synagogue destroyed. The following year on January 20, (1st of Sh'vat, 5376) they were allowed to return to their homes and rebuild the synagogue. The community instituted a public fast day to be held each year on the last day of the month of Tevet (the month before Sh’vat). This commemoration remained in effect for generations.


1615 April 23, FRANCE

Louis XIII decreed that all Jews must leave France within one month on pain of death.


1616 TSEN0 URENO (Tze'nah u-Re'nah)

A complication of biblical portions, their commentaries, the Megillot, ethics and various legends is published. Written in Yiddish by Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi (1550-1928), it was designed for the female reader.Tseno Ureno enjoyed huge popularity and went through 120 editions up to the 20th century.


1616 GRODNO, (Belarus-formerly Poland-Lithuania)

Jesuits arrived and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations.


1616 January 19, WORMS (Germany)

Under orders of the Bishop of Speyer and with the backing of Frederick's troops, the Jews were re-admitted to the city.


1616 March 10, (20 Adar 5376) FRANKFURT (Germany)

Fettmilch (see 1614) was hanged. That day is commemorated as a feast day known as "Purim Winz" (Purim of Vincent)by the Frankfurt community, with the reading of the Megillat Vinz composed by Elhanan b. Abraham Helin.


C. 1617 - 1687 ISAAC (BALTAZAR) OROBIO DE CASTRO (Spain- Netherlands)

Professor of philosophy and physician. Denounced to the inquisition by a servant, he spent 3 years under torture without admitting to practicing Judaism. Forced to leave Spain, he became a professor of pharmacy in Toulouse. De Castro settled in Amsterdam in 1662 where he took the name Isaac and became active in the Jewish community. He published a number of books defending Judaism against Christianity, and one against Spinoza.


1618 ANTISEMETIC MIRROR OF THE POLISH CROWN PUBLISHED ( Cracow Poland)

Sebastian Miczynski a professor at the local university, published Zwierciadlo Korony Polskej (The Mirror of the Polish Crown) in which he accused the Jews of everything from murder to witchcraft and urged their expulsion. Its publication led to anti Jewish riots and a ban on the book by King Sigismund III Vasa. Despite the ban new additions were reprinted and the charges were still debated in the Diet of 1618.


1618 - 1638 THIRTY YEARS WAR (Europe)

Between Catholic and Protestant forces in Europe. The fighting centered around Germany, Austria, France and the Netherlands (Ferdinand II of Spain vs. Christian IV of Denmark). In Vienna, Jews suffered during the occupation of Imperial soldiers. Throughout many towns in Germany and Moravia, the Jewish population was expelled, which resulted in thousands of refugees fleeing to Cracow and other Polish cities. After the war, owing to the general destruction and decline of the local populations, France, Moravia, and Germany encouraged foreigners- including Jews - to settle and help rebuild their economies.


1619 - 1720 (10 Shvat 5470) RABBI SHALOM SHABAZI (Elshabizi) (Yemen)

Poet, talmudist, and community leader. Shabazi was born in Southern Yemen where he worked as a weaver. Shabazi is most famous as a poet, with almost half the poems in the Yemenite diwan being his. Approximately 550 of his poems and hymns are still in existence, written in Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic. Although he lived in poverty, he was recognized as a spiritual leader and an astute politician, especially during the expulsion of the Jews from Saana in 1679. The local ruler captured his daughter, Shima, but she preferred death to being forced to live with him.


1619 November 21, SHAH ABBASI (Sufi Dynasty, Persia)

Intensified persecution against the Jews. Many were forced to live "Marrano-like" lives, outwardly practicing Islam. This policy was continued by his son, Abbas II.


1619 December 13, HOLLAND AND WEST FRIESLAND (The Netherlands)

Under the rule of Prince Maurice of Orange, it was decided that each city could decide for itself whether or not to admit Jews. In consequence, the position of Jews differed greatly between cities In those towns where they were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.




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