C. 1450 - 1525 ELIJAH MIZRACHI (HaRe'em) (Ottoman Empire)
Talmudist and Halachist and mathematician. He is best known for his Sefer ha-Mizrachi, a supercommentary highlighting Rashiï¿½s Talmudic and Midrashic sources (see 1040 SOLOMON BEN ISAAC). He served as HaRav HaGadol (Chief Rabbi) from 1497 to 1526. His works on math and astronomy include Sefer ha-Mispar, a commentary Euclid's Elements, and . a commentary to Ptolemy's highly influential Almagest, on motions of the stars and planetary paths.
1450 October 5, EXPULSION OF JEWS (Lower Bavaria)
Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria, successor to Henry of Landshut, who had invited the Jews to live in his area, decided to banish them. He first tried conversion, then had many Jews arrested, then fined them 32,000 florins, and finally expelled them
1451 - 1500 CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (Spain-America)
Discoverer of America. The possibility of his being Jewish is based on the origins of his name being Colon (which was a common Jewish name) and his own mysterious writings.
1451 September 21, JEWISH BADGE (Arhhem, Holland)
Cardinal Nicolaus de Cusa ordered all Jews to be registered, and to wear a badge on their outer clothes.
1452 JOHN CAPISTRANO (Germany)
Convinced the Bavarian Dukes to expel the Jews from their Duchies.
1452 - C. 1528 ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI FARISSOL ( France- Italy)
Scholar, cantor, biblical commentator and geographer. He wrote a commentary of the Pentateuch Perachei Shoshanim (The Flower of Lilies), a polemic work defending Judaism Magen Avraham ( The Shield of Abraham ) and his famous Igeret Orchot Olam on cosmography and geography, which was translated into Latin as Tractatus Itinerum Mundi in 1691.Farrisol composed a prayer book for women in 1471 ( revised in 1480.) In it he proposed a radical change in the morning prayer regarding women (see 1471).rn
1452 - 1515 ABRAHAM ZACUTO (Spain-Portugal-Tunisia)
Astronomer and historian. Around 1474 he wrote his "Great Treatise" HaHibur HaGadol under the patronage of the bishop of Salamanca which was translated into Spanish. His astronomical tables were used by Columbus. After the expulsion of 1492, he went to Portugal where he developed the copper Astrolabe used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1497 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis, where he wrote a history of the Jews from the creation until 1500.
1452 March 21, CUPIENTES JUDAEOS. “Wishing that the Jews”
Pope Paul III issued this Bull laying down some of the fundamental privileges for those Jews who converted to Christianity (Neophytes). In order to qualify they had to break all ties with other Jews including family members, and could only marry a born Christian. The Bull protected their property, offer then tax incentives, and gave them full citizenship. Until then Jews who converted had to give over their wealth to the church.
1453 FRANCONIA (Germany)
Bishop Godfrey of Wurzburg (Duke of Franconia), previously a benefactor of the Jews, was persuaded by John of Capistrano to expel them. When Capistrano arrived at Neustadt, Israel Isserlen offered to follow him to the stake to see by what miracles he could save himself - needless to say, Capistrano turned down the opportunity.
1453 - 1821 GREECE
Under Turkish (Ottoman) rule. Jews arrived from Spain, Portugal, and even Poland. For the most part they were free to engage in trade and crafts. Their economic situation varied greatly, depending on the area. In Salonika the Jews controlled much of the trade, to such a degree that the port was closed on the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.
1453 May 29, CONSTANTINOPLE (Ottoman Empire)
Fell to the Turks under Mohammed II. Jews were welcomed to settle in the city. Turkey provided a refuge for thousands of Jews who were soon forced to leave the Iberian Peninsula. Prophesies regarding the coming of the messiah began to circulate leading some Jews from Spain to leave to Eretz Israel.
1453 June 2, ÁLVARO DE LUNA EXECUTED
De Luna, a close confident of king John II, was beheaded under the influence of his queen Isabella of Portugal. De Luna had angered the nobility by appointing first Jews and later substituting them with Conversos to key positions in the court. His act roused jealousy of the nobility against the Conversos , and at the same time showed that Jews themselves were dispensable, possibly leading to their eventual expulsion.rn
1453 June 2, BRESLAU (Germany)
John of Capistrano led a mock trial of alleged desecrations of the host. The Rabbi hung himself and urged other Jews to commit suicide. Forty-one Jews were burned, their property confiscated, and all children under seven were forcibly baptized.
1454 (18 Tamuz 5214) CRETE
After a trial that lasted for two years, the nine leading members of the Jewish community who were accused of host desecration were acquitted by a Venetian court. Although further charges were brought claiming that the Jews had bribed the judges, this view was not accepted and the day was celebrated as a semi-holiday for many years by the Jewish community in Crete.
1454 FROMMET OF ARWYLLER ( Germany)
Educator and scribe. She reproduced a copy of a book on Jewish law Kitzur Mordechai for her husband. She also ran a school for young children.
1454 November, NIESZAWA STATUTE (Poland)
Casimir IV revoked the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignyev Oleshnitzki. The Cardinal had correctly "predicted" Casimir's defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews.
1455 CRACOW (Poland)
Due to anti-Jewish agitation and the refusal of the authorities to offer protection, a massacre ensued.
1455 SYRACUSE (Sicily)
Twenty four Jews from all over Sicily chartered a Spanish boat to take them to Eretz Israel without prior permission from the King, Alfonso V. They were arrested by the kings representative, the archbishop of Palermo. After making a large payment, they were released and permitted to leave. Among them was the poet and astronomer Isaac ben Solomon Alhadib (1396- c.1429). Syracuse was considered a city second in importance only to Palermo.
1456 May 18, PROHIBITION OF JEWS TO TESTIFY AGAINST A CHRISTIAN
In the bull Si ad Reprimendos (If He Is Preventing…) Pope Calixtus III(1378- 1458) prohibited Jews from testifying against Christians, but permitted Christians to testify against a Jew.rnrn