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1430 October 3, EXPLUSION OF THE JEWS FROM EGER ( Bohemia)

After complaints by local Christians to King Sigismund of Luxembourg (1368 – 1437) "Holy Roman Emperor", that Jews weren't serving in the army, he gave the town permission to expel them all. The synagogue was turned into a church. Four years later (1434), the town's leaders asked the king to readmit as many Jews as the city's businesses interests could accommodate.


1432 February 8, PROTECTION FOR THE JEWS

Pope Eugene IV (1383 -1447) issued a bull against forced baptism and disturbance of synagogues and graveyards. The same Pope demanded the complete separation of Jews and Christians (see 1442).


1432 May 2, COUNCIL OF VALLADOLID (Castile, Spain)

Led by Don Abraham Benveniste,among other things, it called for the establishment of a Jewish educational system. After the disturbances of the 1390's and 1410's, many communities were left impoverished. Those that retained their wealth were often reluctant to share in the cost of educating the community at large. The council established a statute endorsed by King John II for establishing and maintaining schools. It also enacted “Sumptuary laws” which regulated what people may wear, how they may marry etc. They were voluntarily placed on the Jewish community by its leaders hoping to lessen ostentation and appear less flamboyant to the gentile population. Similar laws can be found starting from the 13th century (Rhineland) until the 18th century (France). rnrn


1433 - 1493 ISAAC ABOAB OF CASTILE (Spain- Portugal)

Aka Isaac Aboab II, was a noted scholar, teacher and biblical commentator. He was also known as the "last Gaon of Castile,". Aside from Nehar Pishon, which is a collection or his lectures he also published commentaries on the Talmud and supercommentaries on Rashi, and Nachmanides. Among his students were , Abraham Zacuto , Jacob Berab, and Joseph Fasi. In 1492 he and others went to Portugal to meet with King John II of Portugal and arrange for their absorption of some of the exiles.


1434 September 7, COUNCIL OF BASEL (Switzerland)

Instituted new measures against the Jews throughout Europe. The council, aside from adopting many of the old measures like preventing interaction between Jews and Christians, prohibited Jews from entering universities, and forced them to listen to conversion sermons. The council encouraged Christian study of Hebrew in order to "combat Jewish heresy". The council, which had begun three years earlier, was to last more than 15 years and was one of the most turbulent councils in the middle ages, being for the most part a contest between council and pope for supremacy. Many Papal scholars claimed that the council was never officially recognized by the Pope, although this had no effect on the anti-Jewish legislation.


1435 MAJORCA

Three years after a blood libel the community was forced to either leave or convert. The 200 who were converted became known as chuetas (the word for pork). Legal discrimination against them existed until 1782.


1435 May 5, SPEYER (Germany)

Jews were expelled. One of the refugees was Moses Mentzlav who moved to Italy. His son, Israel Nathan, founded the printing house of Soncino.


1435 September 25, AIX-EN-PROVENCE (France)

As a result of riots a few years earlier when nine Jews were killed, Jews were forced to wear the "Jewish badge". Nine years later, King Rene of Naples / Duke of Anjou ( 1409-1480), agreed to reduce the size of the badge, and decreed that it need not be worn while traveling.


1436 January 24, AIX-EN-PROVENCE (France)

A riot ensued after a crowd felt that a Jew who insulted the Virgin Mary received too light a sentence.


1437 FLORENCE (Italy)

The Jewish community was founded when a number of Jewish bankers were asked to set up services in the town. For the most part, the Medici family tried to protect the Jews against the local population, which was opposed to their presence in the city.


1437 - 1509 (6 Av 5269) DON ISAAC ABRAVANEL(Abarbanel) (Spain)

Philosopher, financier and scholar. He interceded many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand II from expelling them. In 1492 he was foiled by Torquemada and followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu'ot (Tower of Salvation).


1437 EMPEROR SIGISMUND (Holy Roman Emperor r.1433-1437)

Though he drained the Jews of their wealth whenever he could, he protected them from some of the worst excesses. His successor, Austrian Archduke Albert V (1397-1439) (Emperor Albert II), hated the Jews passionately and welcomed any excuse for persecuting them.


1438 THE FIRST JEWISH GHETTO OR MELLAH WAS CREATED(Fez, Morocco)

By Abd al-Haqq II (1420–1465) the Marinid Sultan. Other ghettos in Marrakesh and Aghmat were constructed during the mid 16th century, and more in 1807, during the rule of Mulay Suleiman (1792-1822). The word mellah is similar to Melach (salt) in Hebrew, and referred to al-Mallah, "the saline area" near Fez (Hims).


1439 ALBERT II (Austria, Holy Roman Empire)

Agreed to accept 900 gulden from the city of Augsburg in return for allowing them to expel their Jews. Jews were to be allowed into the town on business and if a war broke out.


1439 - 1494 BERNADINO DA FELTRE (Europe)

A Franciscan monk known for his preaching. He traveled through Europe inciting the public against the Jews. Da Feltre was responsible for a number of blood libels including the one at Trent in 1475. He was beatified after his death.




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