1391 June 6, FORCED CONVERSIONS (Seville, Spain)
Ferrand Martinez, Archdeacon of Ecija, began to incite mobs into attacking
the Jewish quarter. The campaign soon spread throughout Spain, except for
Granada. The Jewish quarter in Barcelona, located for over 400 years near the castle, was totally destroyed. Over 10,000 Jews were killed,
and many others chose conversion and became New Christians or Conversos.
Of these, many continued to practice Judaism in secret while paying lip
service to the Church. They became known by the Christians as Marranos.
The Jews never used the term Marrano themselves although some knew of
it. Many scholars have speculated that the origins of the word stemmed
from Latin, Arabic and even Hebrew, but in fact it was the Spanish
term for pig or pork an expression of extreme disgust on the part of
the Christians. The Jews refered to them as anusim "those who were forced to
convert". Eventually, these mass forced conversions led to the
establishment of the Inquisition.
1391 July 9, VALENCIA (Spain)
The violence, which was begun a month earlier by Ferrand Martinez (see June 6), continued unabated. The community was destroyed and 250 Jews massacred. Many others, including the King's physician, converted to Christianity, while still others found refuge in the houses of their Christian neighbors.
1391 July 10, PALMA DE MAJORCA
As news of the Spanish riots reached Majorca, riots broke out all over the island. Despite the efforts of Francisco Sa Garriga, the local viceroy, the entire Jewish community was destroyed and its inhabitants were either converted or murdered. Over 110 families converted, and the remnants fled to North Africa. Although a number of Jews were again invited to reside there the following year, a blood libel 40 years later ended the 800 year old Jewish community.
1391 July 16, VALENCIA (Spain)
King Pedro IV ordered that all Jews who had hidden in Christian houses be allowed to return to their homes unmolested. Furthermore, he decreed that synagogues were not to be turned into churches. This did not prevent him from confiscating all the property of those Jews who had either fled or been murdered.
1391 August 5, BARCELONA (Spain)
Although the city fathers and artisans tried to protect them, more than 400 Jews were killed in attacks instigated, for the most part, by Castilians who had taken part in the massacres in Seville and Valencia.
1392 DAMASCUS (Syria)
Local Jews were accused by the Mameluke ruler of setting fire to the central mosque. Though no real evidence was ever presented, a number of Jewish leaders were arrested, one was burned alive, and the synagogue was converted into a mosque. Two years later the synagogue was restored.
1392 July 17, PORTUGAL
King John (Joao I) (1385-1432) ordered compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface IX protecting Jews from forced baptism and extended it to Spanish Jewish refugees.
1393 August 18, KING JOHN I (Spain)
In an effort to prevent "backsliding" by converted Jews, he prohibited them from living in the same quarter as unconverted Jews or even eating with them.
1394 September 17, CHARLES VI (France)
Using the pretense that a convert in Paris, Denis Machuit, returned to Judaism, he once again expelled the Jews. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon.
1399 JUAN I (Castile, Spain)
Renewed the anti-Jewish decrees of Alfonso X.
1399 FIRST OFFICIAL RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION IN POLAND (Posen)
A Christian woman was accused of stealing 3 “hosts” and giving them to Jews for the purpose of desecrating them. Under the instigation of the local Archbishop, the Rabbi, thirteen members of the community and the woman were all tortured and burned alive slowly. The community was forced to pay a special tax each year for more until the 18th century.
1399 August 16, YOM TOV LIPPMAN-MUELHAUSEN ( Prague)
Rabbi and philosopher, was arrested along with other Jews accused of defaming Christianity. Despite his efforts, 77 Jews were killed. This outstanding Jewish scholar, in addition to his extensive knowledge of philosophy, knew Latin, studied the New Testament and was a skilled polemicist. He had previously held dialogues with the Bishop of Linda, which was unusual for its time in that they were held in an atmosphere of tolerance.