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1380 - 1444 JOSEPH ALBO (Spain)

Philosopher and one of the main defenders of Judaism at the disputation in Tortosa. His philosophy was based on the premise that salvation is the main aim in life. His main work, Ikkarim (Principles), was much criticized because of its similarity to the Christian doctrine of salvation. He also disagreed with Maimonides on the centrality of the Messiah to Judaism.


1380 November 15, CHARLES VI ASCENDS THE THRONE (France)

He told a mob that he would relieve some of the taxes but not expel the Jews. Instigated by the nobles, they plundered and murdered in the Jewish quarter for four days. The nobles hoped that this way they would relieve themselves of some of the debts owed to Jewish money lenders. Some Jews took refuge in the royal prison. Hughes Abriot, the Provost, obtained an order for restitution of all property and the return of all infants forcibly baptized. Because of this, he was accused of converting to Judaism and sent to jail for a year in penance.


1382 March 2, MAILOTIN RIOTS (Paris, France)

These riots were similar to the tax riots held two years previously. Both times the Jews were considered accomplices in over-oppressive taxes. Sixteen Jews fell victim to this outbreak.


1383 March 13, PETER IV ( Spain)

As a pretext to exhort funds from the Jews, he demanded an immediate full translation of Maimonides' Mishneh Torah into Catalan on pain of losing his “favor". Loans had to be secured in order to come up with the enormous sum demanded by the king.


1384 WISSENBURG, WINDSHEIM, AND NORDLINGEN (Germany)

Guilds revolt against the patricians. The Jews, an old enemy of the guilds, who saw them as competition, shared the fate of the patricians. The Federation of Swabia tried to put down the revolt. In many cities (i.e. Nuremburg), the Jews were forced to buy the protection of the local councils.


1385 JOHN OF CASTILE (Spain)

Enforced previous anti-Jewish legislation.


1385 ULM (Germany)

At a meeting of the Swabian League cities it was decided that one fourth of the debts owed to Jews should be cancelled and the other three-quarters should be paid to the cities. Jews were prevented from emigrating.


1385 June 16, King WENCESLAUS (Germany)

Arrested Jews living in what was known as the Swabian League, and confiscated their books. A hefty fine had to be paid for the release of the prisoners and the return of the books.


1386 STRASBOURG (Germany)

After an inter-community dispute, the Jewish community was expelled on orders from Wenceslaus. Their property was confiscated.


1386 - 1456 JOHN OF CAPISTRANO (Giovanni da Capistrano) (Italy)

Nicknamed "Scourge of the Jews". A Franciscan monk, considered it an obligation and a privilege to persecute the Jews. As such, for the next 40 years, he traveled throughout Italy even reaching Bohemia. John of Capistrano acted as an agent of the Church, attacking Jews and heretics and did his best to undermine their positions. He did not hesitate to chastise the pope on occasion for being too lenient. He even convinced the Queen of Naples to cancel any rights given to the Jews and to reinstate all anti-Jewish measure, although this was short-lived.


1387 THE CANTERBURY TALES

A collection of stores completed by Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400). His "The Prioress's Tale" is a story about a child killed by Jews as encouraged by Satan 'That hath in Jewes' heart his waspe's nest'. The story ends with the mention of another ‘ritual murder libel, Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln, in 1255.


1388 - 1460 MOSES BEN ISAAC RIETI (Italy)

Composed the encyclopedic moralistic work, Mikdash Me'at (The Little Temple), describing a symbolic journey and search for paradise similar to Dante's 14th century "Divine Comedy".


1389 April 18, MASSACRE AT PRAGUE (Bohemia)

A priest, hit with a few grains of sand or pebbles by small Jewish boys playing in the street, became insulted and insisted that the Jewish community purposely plotted against him. The priests followers beat up the boys whose parents arrived to defend them. A mob was then incited to attack the ghetto. Thousands were slaughtered, the synagogue and the cemetery were destroyed, and homes were pillaged. King Wenceslaus insisted that the responsibility rested with the Jews for venturing outside during Holy Week.


1389 July 1, GRAND DUKE WITOLD (Vitold) (Vytautas the Great) (1350-1430) (Lithuania)

Established the basis for the legal status of Jews, including freedom of trade and worship originally in the Grodno Province and then on his other regions. This bill of rights "Cartia" was in sharp contrast to the medieval position of the Jews throughout Poland. Individual Jews were not taxed but the community itself was responsible for the collection and their lives and property were protected. The Duke also brought Jews from the Crimea and settled them in Vilna and even proposed that synagogues and Jewish cemeteries be tax exempted.


1389 July 2, POPE BONIFACE IX

Based on a Bull of Pope Callixtus II (1120) Sicut Judaeis(Latin: "As the Jews")written during the first crusade, he forbade Christians to harm the Jews, destroy their cemeteries, or forcibly baptize them. The Bull was confirmed many times by different popes but unfortunately did not have a lasting effect.




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