1370 May 22, ALLEGED HOST DESECRATIONS (Brussels, Belgium)
After killing a local wealthy Jew, the perpetrators tried to cover their tracks by accusing the Jews of Host desecration and escaping in the resulting confusion. Twenty Jews were burned to death, many injured, and the rest were banished from the country. A holiday was declared by the local churches.
1374 FLORETA CA NOGA (Spain)
Received a license to practice medicine throughout Aragon. She received 15 gold florins for successfully treating Sibila of Fortia, Queen consort to the kingdom of Aragon.
C. 1375 - C. 1450 SOLOMON BEN REUBEN BONAFED ( Spain)
Poet, philosopher and community Rabbi . Considered the last important Spanish (Hebrew) poet . He attended the dispute at Tortosa, and wrote many poems describing the events and his pain following the mass conversions which took place soon after. His anguish was especially evident in a poem he wrote regarding Vidal Joseph de la Cavalleria. Cavalleria a descendent of Judah de la Cavalleria (see 1257) had represented Saragossa under pressure he converted, which caused great consternation in the entire Spanish Jewish community.
1376 ABRAHAM CRESQUES (Majorca)
The famous Majorcan cartographer to Pedro IV of Aragon. He sent a map of the world as a gift to Charles VI of France. He is also credited from creating the famous Catalan atlas. Many of the maps of this era - which were known as Portolanos - charted coastlines and oceans (mostly of the Mediterranean area). Many Jews from the island of Majorca - as well as from Alexandria - have their names signed to these early maps.
Following persecutions in the wake of the Black Plague, many Jews fled south to Greece, becoming absorbed into the local Sephardic population. The term "Sephardic Jews" originally refered to those Jews who lived in the Iberian peninsula and followed certain customs. After the expulsion of 1492 the Sephardic community spread throughout the Levant, to Turkey , Greece, and North Africa. Ladino (which is the equivalent of Yiddish) was spoken by some but, was not as widespread as the former among its population.
1376 VIDIMURA OF CATANIA (Sicily)
Was given permission to practice medicine throughout Sicily especially for the poor and handicapped, becoming the first official woman doctor in Sicily. Her husband Pasquale was also a physician.
1377 HOST PURCHASING TRIAL (Teruel and Huesca, Spain)
As in the trial of 1367 Jews were again accused of trying to purchase a consecrated host. The person behind it was again the crown prince (Infante) Don Juan (see 1350). A number of Jews were tortured and burned alive in Huesca. Others were taken to Barcelona for trial. His father Peter IV who attended the trial, wrote to him complaining that his actions would drive the Jews out of the realm. He replied that it was his duty to revenge the death of Jesus.
1378 - 1400 KING WENCESLAUS (Germany)
During the fights between the cities and the nobility, he tried a compromise proposal using the Jews as a pawn (1385). He later retracted and broke up the Swabian League, (the league of free cities in S. Germany) remitting all debts owed to Jews, with the Emperor getting his percentage. This provided further impetus for the Jews to move eastward.
1379 JOHN I OF CASTILE (Spain)
A Jewish advisor to his father, Joseph Pickon, was condemned to death by a rabbinical court for informing and treason on the day of his coronation. John was so incensed that he ordered the court executed and forbade Jewish courts to condemn anyone to capital punishment or expulsion.