1310 - 1380 COUNCIL OF ZARMORA (Spain)
The Council, under the patronage of the Queen Mother Maria, decreed the wearing of the "Badge of Shame" for Jews, the exclusion of Jews from all state occasions, and a ban on the employment of Jewish physicians. Jews were also forbidden to use Christian names. However, the council rejected the request of Pope Clement V to cancel all debts to Jews.
1310 - C. 1375 NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI (Rabbenu Nissim - the Ran) (Spain)
Talmudist, scholar and physician. He was recognized as one of the most authoritative halachic interpreters of his generation. His halachic commentary on Alfasi is considered a standard text. His commentary on Tractate Nedarim is printed together with the Talmud and is used instead of Rashi which is not extant for that section of the Talmud. The exact date of his death is unknown. It is presumed he died while being held captive in prison.
C. 1310 - 1407 ISAAC BEN SHESHET BARFAT (the Rivash) (Spain)
Though he actually studied under the Ran, he is considered a pupil of ben Aderet whose teachings he followed. He wrote commentaries on the Talmud, Bible and halachot, and served as Rabbi of Sarargossa. He is also remembered for his uncompromising defense of Jewish tradition.
1315 LOUIS X (France)
Philip's brother and successor, he allowed the Jews back into France for financial considerations. (Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.) The Jews were promised one year's notice should permission to return be rescinded.