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1310 - C. 1375 NISSIM BEN REUBEN GERONDI (Rabbenu Nissim - the Ran) (Spain)

Talmudist, scholar and physician. He was recognized as one of the most authoritative halachic interpreters of his generation. His halachic commentary on Alfasi is considered a standard text. His commentary on Tractate Nedarim is printed together with the Talmud and is used instead of Rashi which is not extant for that section of the Talmud. The exact date of his death is unknown. It is presumed he died while being held captive in prison.


1311 October 16, - 1312 COUNCIL OF VIENNE ( France)

Was summoned by Pope Clement V. Although it mostly dealt with the suppression of the Knights Templar, it also resolved to establish chairs of Hebrew and Arabic at universities in Paris, Oxford, Bologna etc, in order to better dispute Judaism and to train missionaries. The chairs in Arabic were in reality never established.


1313 January, - 1380 COUNCIL OF ZAMORA (Spain)

The Council, under the patronage of the Queen Mother Maria, had as its goal to end all social interaction between Jews and Christians. The edicts included; the wearing of the "Badge of Shame", exclusion from all state occasions, and a ban on the employment of Jewish physicians. Jews were also forbidden to use Christian names. However, the council rejected the request of Pope Clement V to cancel all debts to Jews.


1315 LOUIS X (France)

Philip's Iv’s son and successor. He allowed the Jews back into France largely for financial considerations. (Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.) The Jews were promised one year's notice should permission to return be rescinded. He also returned their synagogues and cemeteries.


1315 November 28, TALMUD BURNED (Toulouse)

Despite the general improvement of the atmosphere under Louis X, two wagon loads of Jewish books including the Talmud were burnt under the orders of Bernard Gui the French Dominican inquisitor.


1317 August 12, BULL EX PARTE VESTRA

Was issued by Pope John XXII. The bull concerned those who were suspected of heresy, and Jews who had "relapsed". It ordered the inquisitors to " Pluck out by the roots …such a noxious and pestiferous weed." The bull was confirmed by Pope Benedict XIV as late as February 20 1751 in his Elapso Proxime Anno".


1319 - 1387 PETER (PEDRO) IV OF ARAGON

Despite his reluctance to appoint any Jews to the court he had many strong personal relationships . During his reign (1336-1387) although their financial position (and help to the crown) was greatly reduced the Jews were allowed a great amount of autonomy. He tried to protect the Jews against the worst of the inquisition and anti- Jewish ferment.




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