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1290 PARIS (France)

A Jew by the name of Jonathan and his wife, living in the Rue de Billetts, were accused of stabbing the wafer (Host). Blood was said to have flowed unceasingly from the wafer. They were both burned to death at the stake, their house was razed and a chapel was erected on the site. The "Miracle of the Rue de Billetts" is still celebrated in Paris.


C. 1290 BARTOLOMEO DE CAPUA (Apulia, Italy)

Was a Dominican friar who accused the Jews of killing a Christian child in a derision of the death of Jesus. The king ordered them to either accept baptism or flee. Most of the local synagogues in Trani, Bari, Naples, Apulia, and other cities were converted to churches. Thousands of Jews throughout southern Italy either fled or converted as a consequence, ending 1,000 years of active Jewish life.


1290 July 18, EDWARD I (England)

Pressured by his barons, the Church and possibly his mother, he announced the expulsion of all the Jews. By November 1 approximately 4,000 had fled, mostly to France. The Jews had to pay their own passage. They were allowed to take movables (i.e. clothing). A number of Jews were robbed and cast overboard during the voyage by the ship captains. The Jews did not return to England until 1659. This was the first national expulsion of the Jews. (England was one of the only centralized and national monarchies of that time.)


1291 March, SAAD AD-DAULA ( Mongol Empire-Persia)

Physician to the Mongolian khan Argun (1284-91. Appointed viser and minister of finance in 1288, he soon uncovered corruption which he duly reported. This earned him the enmity of many Muslims and some of the Mongol generals. In March 1291 while the sultan was gravely ill, they used the opportunity to confiscate all of his property, execute him together with many of his family, selling women and children as slaves. Moslems also attacked local Jewish populations.


1291 May 18, ACRE (Eretz Israel)

After a two month siege, the fortress fell to the Mamluk (see 1250) Egyptians under Al-Ashraf Khalil(1262-1293). Any inhabitants Christian or Jews who did not succeed in fleeing were killed. To all intents and purposes the Crusades were at an end. The various crusading armies never succeeded in uniting as a cohesive force. They were defeated as much by infighting and separate treaties as by the Fatimid armies.


1295 April 25, FERDINAND IV

Ascended the throne of Castile and Leon. Unlike his mother Dona Maria before him, he refused to ban Jewish courtiers. Ferdinand (1285-1312) opposed the church in anything which he perceived to be not in his best interest. "The Jews and all their possessions are mine ( not the Churches) ".


1295 July 21, NISSIM BEN AVRAHAM (Castile, Spain)

Known as the prophet of Alvila,ׂ had predicted that the messiah would come on this date. Rabbi Solomon ben Aderet (see 1235) warned people against him but to little avail. Jews fasted and gathered in synagogues, and when nothing happened many converted. Unfortunately the troubles mounting in the Iberian peninsula would encourage other false messiahs looking for a both an explanation and a “solution”.


1296 June 19, BOPPARD AND OBERWESEL (Germany)

A blood libel instigated by Rindfleish, a German knight, resulted in the murder of 40 Jews. Heine's Der Rabbi von Bacherach was based on this massacre. Over the next few years the slaughter of thousands of victims, if not tens of thousands, in 146 communities in southern and central Germany and Austria were attributed to Rindfleish and his mobs. Emperor Albert I was too busy with internal threats to defend the Jews. A few years later he did make a half-hearted attempt at restoring peace, which was mostly ignored.


1298 April 20, ROTTINGEN (Germany)

Rindfleish accused the local Jews of profaning the host. He then incited the Burgher and local populace to join in the killing. Twenty-one Jews were murdered.




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