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1270 PRAGUE (Bohemia)

The Altneuschul (the "Old-New Synagogue"), the oldest existing synagogue in Europe, was built in the new Jewish quarter.


1270 JACOB BEN MACHIR IBN TIBBON

Invented a quadrant table of 11 fixed stars These were used in the construction of the instrument known as “Quadrans Judaicus,” later called the Quadrans Novus (new quadrant). A quadrant is a simple tool that allows the user to determine the latitude by measuring the altitude of certain stars.


1270 - 1320 IMMANUEL OF ROME (Manuel da Gubbio)

Jewish Italian poet who was a contemporary of Dante and his "Young Italy" circle. He introduced Hebrew secular poetry into Italian intellectual circles. His poems were published as "Compositions of Immanuel" (Machberet Immanuel).


1270 - 1343 (12 Tamuz 5103) JACOB BEN ASHER (Germany)

The Baal Haturim. The third son of the "Rosh" (Asher ben Jehiel), he achieved fame as a codifier of Jewish law. His code is constructed in four sections: 1) Orah Hayim - dealing with worship, 2) Yorah Deah - on ritual law, 3) Eben ha-Ezer - laws relating to marriage and divorce, 4) Hoshen Mishpat - on civil law. Unlike Maimonides, he only compiled current laws and his works served as a foundation for Joseph Caro and others. His son, Solomon, died during the Black Plague.


C. 1270 RAYMOND MARTIN ( Spain)

Aka Raymundus Maritini (1220 1285) published his anti Jewish polemic Pugio Fidei (Dagger of the Faith). trying to prove that Judaism was based on deceit especially in regards to the Talmud. It was used extensively in the Tortosa dispute. In it he writes "It is well, that the Christians take in hand the sword of their enemies, the Jews, to strike them with it? He also wrote another anti Jewish work Capistrum Judaeorum (Muzzle of the Jews). He is considered one of the churches greatest Hebraists of the middle ages.


1271 THOMAS AQUINAS AND THE JEWS

Countess Margaret of Flanders had written to Aquinas requesting to understand the Catholic view of the Jewish people . In his response he wrote: Jews by reason of their fault are sentenced to perpetual servitude for killing Jesus. Jews of each sex in all Christian provinces, and all the time, should be distinguished from other people by some clothing. He also advised that the Jew should be punished with a greater fine than anyone else in a similar case. Aquinas is known as the Doctor Angelicus (the Angelic Doctor) of the Catholic Church.


1272 - 1307 REIGN OF EDWARD I OF ENGLAND

Considered Jews to be a monetary asset, taxing them and confiscating their property without any concern for the depletion and impoverishment of the community. A "good crusading prince", he was also an imperialist and a builder. He was determined to rid his kingdom of anti-Christian practices such as usury.


1272 October 7, POPE GREGORY X (590-604)

Condemned the ritual murder libels. In addition, since Jews could not bear witness against Christians, he refused to accept testimony by a Christian against a Jew unless it was confirmed by another Jew.


1273 JATIVA ARAGON (Spain)

The first known paper mill in Europe was built and run by Jews.


1273 - 1410 JEWISH WOMEN PHYSICIANS IN NAPLES

The names of 24 women surgeons and 15 women practitioners (not midwives), are known most of them Jewish.


1273 - 1291 REIGN OF RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG

Torn between his need for funds and pressure from the Church, he adopted a policy of accepting gifts for favors. Rudolph reconfirmed the Old Jewish Charters in Austria and Rutushion and forbade forcible baptism. However, he banned the public appearance of Jews during Holy Week and did little to stop attacks on Jews in Bavaria, Franconia and the Rhineland (1283-87).


1275 ENGLAND, STATUTE CONCERNING THE JEWS (Statutum de Judaisno)

King Edward banned usury and tried to encourage Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. He failed, partly because of local prejudice and opposition. Jews were forbidden to lend money at interest and the order was renewed that all Jews over the age of seven had to wear a badge shaped like the twelve tablets of law. This was similar to the edict of Louis IX (1254). The Jews, mostly financially drained and impoverished, were replaced by the Lombards of Italy as the bankers of the King - and were thus no longer considered an asset.


1275 FEZ (Morocco)

The local population attacked the Jewish community. Abu Yusuf Yaqub (12691286) the Merinide/Marinid sultan quickly put down the riot. The Marinid's were a Sunni dynasty which overthrew the Almohads in 1244 and ruled for about 200 years.


1277 RABBI ISAAC BEN JOSEPH (Corbial)

Published his Sefer Hamitzvot Hakatan, an abridgement of his father-in-law's work. He was known as the Semak. His father-in-law, R. Jehiel bar Yosef de Paris (Baal Hachotam) feared that the Torah was being forgotten by the masses so he set out all the Halachic and customs applicable in his day in clear and concise language for easy use.


1277 LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER (England)

Was murdered along with her servant. Licoricia was a twice widowed money lender, and one of the richest Jews in England. Approximately 10 percent of the Jewish money lenders were women. After her second husband David of Oxford died, his house and its contents were seized by the crown and turned into the Royal Domus Conversum: a house for converts. The murderer was never caught. Henry III confiscated 3000 (over 2 million in today's value) from her estate and used it to rebuild Westminster abbey.


1278 August 4, POPE NICHOLAS III

Issued the papal bull Vineam Soreth , forcing Jews to attend conversion sermons. The earliest record of forced sermons stems from Agobard of Lyon's (see 820) Epistola de baptizandis Hebraeis, where he ordered the local priests to preach in the Synagogues. This will remain in effect for the next 600 years (see 1870).


1278 November 17, EDWARD I (England)

Arrested all the Jews for alleged coin clipping and counterfeiting. 680 were arrested, jailed and put on trial. The judges were given prior instructions clearly biased against the Jews. Although many Christians were accused, many more (ten times as many) Jews were hung than Christians (269 Jews and 29 Christians). Edward received 16,500 pounds from the property of the executed Jews and the fines of those charged. At that time Jews comprised 1% of the English population. 16,500 pounds was almost 10% of the exchequer's national income.


1279 SYNOD OF OFEN (Hungary)

Held during the reign of King Ladislaus IV (1272-90), it decreed that every Jew must wear a red cloth on his left side. In addition, any Christian living in a house together with a Jew would be prohibited from participating in Church services.


1279 April 19, PEDRO III (Aragon)

Following the pronouncement of Nicholas III's bull of 1278, he ordered all Jews to attend conversion sermons in the synagogues. This soon led to excess on the part of local mobs led by church officials. In order to keep order he banned anti - Jewish demonstrations. Pedro (1239-1285 ) on one hand appointed Jews to his administration, yet on the other slowly gave in to the rising tide of religious fanaticism within the church. By 1283 there were new incidents of anti-Jewish legislation throughout the kingdom. With his death, the position of Jews in service to the king was more or less, a thing of the past.




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