1270 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
The Altneuschul (the "Old-New Synagogue"), the oldest existing synagogue in Europe, was built in the new Jewish quarter.
1270 - 1320 IMMANUEL OF ROME (Manuel da Gubbio)
Jewish Italian poet who was a contemporary of Dante and his "Young Italy" circle. He introduced Hebrew secular poetry into Italian intellectual circles. His poems were published as "Compositions of Immanuel" (Machberet Immanuel).
1270 - 1343 (12 Tamuz 5103) JACOB BEN ASHER (Germany)
The Baal Haturim. The third son of the "Rosh" (Asher ben Jehiel), he achieved fame as a codifier of Jewish law. His code is constructed in four sections: 1) Orah Hayim - dealing with worship, 2) Yorah Deah - on ritual law, 3) Eben ha-Ezer - laws relating to marriage and divorce, 4) Hoshen Mishpat - on civil law. Unlike Maimonides, he only compiled current laws and his works served as a foundation for Joseph Caro and others. His son, Solomon, died during the Black Plague.
1272 - 1307 REIGN OF EDWARD I OF ENGLAND
Considered Jews to be a monetary asset, taxing them and confiscating their property without any concern for the depletion and impoverishment of the community. A "good crusading prince", he was also an imperialist and a builder. He was determined to rid his kingdom of anti-Christian practices such as usury.
1272 October 7, POPE GREGORY X (590-604)
Condemned the ritual murder libels. In addition, since Jews could not bear witness against Christians, he refused to accept testimony by a Christian against a Jew unless it was confirmed by another Jew.
1273 JATIVA ARAGON (Spain)
The first known paper mill in Europe was built and run by Jews.
1273 - 1291 REIGN OF RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG
Torn between his need for funds and pressure from the Church, he adopted a policy of accepting gifts for favors. Rudolph reconfirmed the Old Jewish Charters in Austria and Rutushion and forbade forcible baptism. However, he banned the public appearance of Jews during Holy Week and did little to stop attacks on Jews in Bavaria, Franconia and the Rhineland (1283-87).
1275 ENGLAND, STATUTE CONCERNING THE JEWS (Statutum de Judaisno)
King Edward banned usury and tried to encourage Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. He failed, partly because of local prejudice and opposition. Jews were forbidden to lend money at interest and the order was renewed that all Jews over the age of seven had to wear a badge shaped like the twelve tablets of law. This was similar to the edict of Louis IX (1254). The Jews, mostly financially drained and impoverished, were replaced by the Lombards of Italy as the bankers of the King - and were thus no longer considered an asset.
1275 FEZ (Morocco)
The local population attacked the Jewish community. The Merinide sultan quickly put down the riot.
1277 RABBI ISAAC BEN JOSEPH (Corbial)
Published his Sefer Hamitzvot Hakatan, an abridgement of his father-in-law's work. He was known as the Semak. His father-in-law, R. Jehiel bar Yosef de Paris (Baal Hachotam) feared that the Torah was being forgotten by the masses so he set out all the Halachic and customs applicable in his day in clear and concise language for easy use.
1278 November 17, EDWARD I (England)
Arrested all the Jews for alleged coin clipping and counterfeiting. 680 were arrested, jailed and put on trial. The judges were given prior instructions clearly biased against the Jews. Although many Christians were accused, many more (ten times as many) Jews were hung than Christians (269 Jews and 29 Christians). Edward received 16,500 pounds from the property of the executed Jews and the fines of those charged. At that time Jews comprised 1% of the English population. 16,500 pounds was almost 10% of the exchequer's national income.
1279 SYNOD OF OFEN (Hungary)
Held during the reign of King Ladislaus IV (1272-90), it decreed that every Jew must wear a red cloth on his left side. In addition, any Christian living in a house together with a Jew would be prohibited from participating in Church services.