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1260 ABUL MINA HA-KOHEN AL-ATTAR (Egypt)

Wrote a major Arabic treatise on pharmacology, Practice of the Shop and List of the Important or Management of the Drug Store, which is still used as a reference text in some countries today.


C. 1260 - 1347 ABNER OF BURGOS (Spain)

Aka Alfonso de Valladolid, he converted to Christianity in about 1320 a process which began after the false messiah claims of 1295. He is considered the "Ideologue of Apostasy". Abner's anti-Jewish polemics, written mostly in Hebrew, were to exert great influence over many generations. Among his books and pamphlets, the most famous was Moreh Tsedek; "Mostrador de justicia" (‘Teacher of righteousness') which was used extensively by Alonso de Spina and Pablo de Santa Maria ( 1391). He consistently attacked the Jewish religion and its people (1336) and urged the king to cancel all previous charters and agreements with the Jews.


1260 MAMLUKS (Syria)

Defeated the Mongols at the battle of Ain Jalut and brought Syria under Mamluk rule. Old anti-Jewish regulations were again enforced, including those forcing women to wear one red shoe and one black one. The positions of both Jews and Christians began to suffer, eventually leading to the severe weakening of the Jewish community.


1260 SULTAN AL-MALIK AL-THAHIR (AKA Baibars), (Egypt)

One of the Mameluke commanders became sultan of Egypt. He banned Jews and Christians from ascending above the 7th step on the cave of the patriarchs in Hebron - a ban which lasted 700 years. Baibars (1223- 1277), doubled the tribute paid by all non Muslims. He evidently decided to burn all the Jews of Egypt in a ditch but accepted a heavy payment in its stead.


1261 DUKE HENRY II (Netherlands)

Ordered in his will that all Jews be expelled from the province of Brabant. His widow requested and received an affirmation from Thomas Aquinas stating that it was permitted to benefit from the Jews, and the edict was cancelled.


C. 1261 - 1330 IMMANUEL (ben Solomon) OF ROME

Poet. His main work Machbarot was influenced by both Arabic and Italian poetry. In addition he also wrote a commentary on the bible. One of Immanuel's poems, Yigdal, is used today in daily prayers. It is based on Maimonides thirteen principals of faith.


1261 MAGDEBURG (Germany)

Archbishop Robert seized all Jewish property in Magdeburg, and held influential Jews for ransom by foreign relatives. (This was an inspiration for Eichmann, who offered Jews for trucks.)


1261 VALENCIA ( Spain)

James I permitted Jews to purchase real estate from anyone, including the nobility and clergy. In general Jews were encouraged to settle in newly conquered areas and were often given tax benefits for a year or two.


1263 CIVIL WAR (England)

Between Henry III and Simon de Montfort, leader of the Baronial Party. London Jewry was pillaged. So were the Jews of other towns.


1263 LONDON (England)

A synagogue which was reputed to be one of the most beautiful buildings in London was damaged by anti-Jewish riots and then given to the Brothers of St. Anthony of Vienna. It became St. Anthony's hospital.


1263 July 20, DEBATE BETWEEN PABLO CHRISTIANI AND MOSES BEN NACHMAN (Spain)

Instigated by Raymond of Penaforte. Christiani, a converted Jew, compelled King James of Aragon to force a debate between him and Moses ben Nachman (Nachmanides). The Jews, afraid that no matter the outcome they would lose, pleaded with Nachmanides to withdraw, but the King ordered him to continue. Although Pope Clement IV insisted on the outcome, the King was so impressed that he rewarded Nachmanides with a present of 300 maravedis. Pablo was given permission to continue these debates throughout Aragon with the Jews having to pay his expenses.


1263 August 29, ANTI JEWISH DECREES (Spain)

Jews were ordered to erase any anti Christian texts from all books within three months. Jews were also required to meet in their synagogues and hear conversion sermons from Dominican friars. Yet just five days earlier, King James had granted permission for the founding of a new synagogue in the home of a local noble.


1264 BOLESLAV THE PIOUS (Poland)

Granted a model charter protecting the Jews. Coming soon after the expulsion of the Jews from France and their persecution in Germany, it encouraged immigration to Poland.


1264 September 8, "STATUE OF KALISZ" (Statut kaliski) (Poland)

Was issued by Prince Boleslav V The Pious (1221-1279). Boleslav had extended his rule over all of Poland in 1257. The statue served as the basis for the legal position of Jews in Poland and subsequent charters established their position as belonging to the prince's treasury and under his protection. The statue being issued soon after the expulsion of Jews from France and persecution in Germany, encouraged immigration to Poland.


1264 December 2, SINSIG (Germany)

A convert to Judaism was arrested for preaching Judaism. Although tortured, he refused to recant his belief in Judaism and was burned at the stake.


1265 CHARLES OF ANJOU (southern Italy)

Brother of Louis IX was given the rule over southern Italy by Pope Clement IV as a reward for expelling Manfred son of Frederick II from Sicily. Thus in debt to the pope, Charles began wholesale persecution of the Jews through forced conversions, economic restraints, and physical attacks. At the same time, he hired Jews to serve as translators for scientific texts from Arabic to Latin including Moses of Palermo and Faraj (Moses) Da Agrigento (Girgenti) who was also his personal physician.


1265 NACHMANIDES (Spain)

Was convicted for publishing his side of the debate with Pablo Christiani. Although Nachmanides was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz Israel.


1266 COUNCIL OF BRESLAU (Poland)

The Polish Church adopted the previous anti-Semitic regulations of the Church, including a prohibition against Christians and Jews living in the same house, or even sharing a meal together.


1266 - 1267 SYNOD OF VIENNA (Austria)

Christians were prohibited from attending Jewish ceremonies.


1266 PETER DE LA CADIRETA

A Spanish priest and member of the inquisition accused a non Jewish financial broker from Gerona of practicing Judaism. Although the charges were dismissed it marked the first time the inquisition prosecuted a so-called " Judaizing Christian".


1267 BRESLAU SYNOD

Jews were forbidden from becoming tax or toll farmers. According to customary practice, anyone could have bought these rights in a specific area for an agreed upon sum to be paid to the king. Despite this ruling, Jews often found this to be one of the few economic possibilities opened to them. This in turn caused resentment from both the local population and Christian tax farmers who saw them as competition. In general, its goal was to cut off contact as much as possible between Christians and Jews both socially and physically (ghetto).


1267 - 1327 JAMES II OF ARAGON

Did more to convince Jews to convert than any other previous Spanish king. This being said, he had excellent personal relationships with many Jews. He also forbade forced conversions, protected them from anti Jewish disturbances, and the jurisdiction of the inquisition. His policies regarding the Jews more or less remained in place until 1348 and the onset of the black plague and the riots.


1267 May 12, VIENNA (Austria)

At a special session of the city council it was decided to force all Jews to wear a cone shaped headdress in addition to a badge. This was called the Pileum Cornutum and it became a distinctive attire which is prevalent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews.


1267 June 26, Pope Clement IV

Issued the papal bull Turbato corde., which equated conversion or relapsing (of Jewish converts) to Judaism with heresy. According to Clement, Dominican and Franciscan Inquisitors should include in their investigations, baptized Jews, and those who help them return to Judaism, as well as Christians who express interest in Judaism, and Jews who encourage such conversions.


1267 July 14, POPE CLEMENT IV

Ordered the archbishop of Tarragona Benito de Rocabertí to gather all Jewish books for examination by the Dominicans and Franciscans. He strongly urged that they take Pablo Christiani (see 1194) to coordinate their efforts.


1267 July 15, (20 Tamuz 5027) RITUAL MURDER ACCUSATION (Pforzheim, Baden, Germany)

A seven-year-old girl was found dead in the river. A local woman ‘admitted’ to selling the child for ritual purposes to the Jews. During the riots R. Samuel ben Yakar ha-Levi, R. Isaac ben Eliezer, and R. Abraham ben Gershom committed suicide to escape the throng. The Jews did not return for over 200 years.


1267 August 15, (9 Elul 5027) NACHMANIDES ARRIVED IN JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Upon his arrival, seven years after the Tatar invasion, Nachmanides found "only two brothers, dyers who bought their dye from the governor and were joined by up to ten Jews in their home on Sabbaths for prayers." He reorganized the Jewish community and founded a yeshiva and synagogue.


1269 - 1465 MERINDES DYNASTY (Morocco)

Began when Abu Yusuf the Merinid conquered southern Morocco. The Merindes were a Berber dynasty which replaced the Almohads. In general, the Jews were well treated and enjoyed freedom and affluence during their rule.


1269 June 19, LOUIS IX (Saint Louis) (France)

Needing no urging from the Church, he ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in France was usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin; it was Caliph Omar II (717-20) who decreed that both Jews and Christians must wear a distinguishing mark. The "badge" took on different shapes, colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country.




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