1220 - 1258 MONGOL CONQUEST OF PERSIA
The Mongols attacked Persia (beginning under Genghis Khan, who died in 1227), and captured Baghdad in 1258. The Jews and other religious minorities were tolerated.
1221 June 26, ERFURT (Germany)
Although the Archbishop of Canterbury forbade anti-Jewish riots by English crusaders, they continued unabated. A group of religious "pilgrims" on their way to the Holy Land attacked the Jewish quarter, burning two synagogues. Some 26 Jews were killed. Among the martyrs was the paytan and cantor Samuel b. Kalonymus. Others threw themselves into the fire rather then be forcibly converted.
1222 GOLDEN BULL (Hungary)
As a reaction to the growing influence
(especially economically) of Jews, nobles helped enact a Bull which prevented Jews from becoming "nobles" as well as holding certain offices.
1222 OXFORD SYNOD (England)
Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, held a provincial church council at Oxford. It forbade Jews to build new synagogues, own slaves, or mix with Christians. He had been one of the prime movers of the Fourth Lateran Council and was motivated by its anti-Jewish spirit. In reality, the Oxford's synods canons were not widely enforced or even enforceable in practice.
1222 April 17, DEACON ROBERT OF READING (England)
Was burned for converting to Judaism. The deacon had converted for the love of a Jewess. He was dismissed from his position in the church and delivered to lay authorities who promptly burned him. In general, heretics were not burned in England until the late 14th century.
1224 JACOB ANATOLI (Naples, Italy)
Physician, and translator. Was invited by Emperor Frederick II to help establish a university. His sermons were organized in a book called Malmad ha-Talmidim (The Students' Instruction). Like Maimonides, he believed that one must perform the commandments through reason, a philosophy which earned him many enemies.
1226 - 1270 LOUIS IX (SAINT) OF FRANCE
Sanctioned laws against Jews and encouraged disputations between Jewish and Christian theologians (Nicholas Donin,1240) in order to convert more Jews. At the same time that he oppressed the Jews (i.e. canceling all debts owed to them by Christians), he gave gifts and favors to any who converted. He recommended that the best way of winning an argument with a Jew was to drive a sword as far as it would go into his stomach.
1227 COUNCIL OF NARBONNE (France)
Met to implement the anti-Jewish decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.
1227 - 1274 SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS
Called for all the Jews to be enslaved.
1228 BAGHDAD (Persia)
According to a Moslem custom each (non-Moslem) communal leader had his face publicly slapped upon paying the poll tax for his community. The elderly leader of the Jewish community, Ibn Ash-Shuwaikh, asked to be allowed to make the payment at night so as to avoid the shame. His request was refused.
1229 TREATY OF JAFFA (Eretz Israel)
Between Emperor Frederick II and the Sultan of Egypt. Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem were returned to the crusaders. Jews were once again forbidden to live in Jerusalem.
1229 HENRY III (England)
Jews were forced to pay various additional tallages during the 1220's and 30's. In 1229 an additional 8,000 mark tallage was imposed and in 1232 an additional 10,000 marks.