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1220 - 1258 MONGOL CONQUEST OF PERSIA

The Mongols attacked Persia (beginning under Genghis Khan, who died in 1227), and captured Baghdad in 1258. The Jews and other religious minorities were tolerated.


C. 1220 - 1291 TANHUM BEN JOSEPH (Ha -)YERUSHALMI (Eretz Israel - Egypt)

Philologist, poet, and biblical exegete. He or his family originated from Jerusalem, although he died in Egypt. Tanhum had an wide-ranging knowledge of philosophy, and medicine as well as a number of languages, including Arabic and Greek. He had an extensive knowledge of previous biblical exegetes and grammarians. His works include Al-Murshid al-Kafi (on Maimonides) Mekomot (Places), and Arugot ha-Besamim (The Herb patch).


C. 1220 - 1298 TODROS BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI ABULAFIA (Toledo)

Rabbi, kabbalist and courtier under Alfonzo X, Though coming from a wealthy and well connected family he was known for his modesty. In his sermons (which were printed as Zikaron LeYehudah) he condemned the lack of morality in the community. His other works included Shaar haRazim on Kabbalah and Otsar HaKovod on Talmudic legends.


1221 April 29, POPE HONORIUS III REAFFIRMED DECISIONS OF THE FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL

rnIn his bull Ad nostram Noveritis audientiam (To the hearing, know that…), Honorius reconfirmed his previous bull (1218) and demanded the enforcement of the 4th Lateran Council ban on Jews holding public office. Jews were required to wear a distinctive badge in public and were made to pay a tithe to local churches.rn


1221 June 26, ERFURT (Germany)

Although the Archbishop of Canterbury forbade anti-Jewish riots by English crusaders, they continued unabated. A group of religious "pilgrims" on their way to the Holy Land attacked the Jewish quarter, burning two synagogues. Some 26 Jews were killed. Among the martyrs was the paytan and cantor Samuel b. Kalonymus. Others threw themselves into the fire rather then be forcibly converted.


1222 GOLDEN BULL (Hungary)

As a reaction to the growing influence (especially economically) of Jews, nobles helped enact a Bull which prevented Jews from becoming "nobles" as well as holding certain offices.


1222 OXFORD SYNOD (England)

Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, held a provincial church council at Oxford. It forbade Jews to build new synagogues, own slaves, or mix with Christians. He had been one of the prime movers of the Fourth Lateran Council and was motivated by its anti-Jewish spirit. In reality, the Oxford's synods canons were not widely enforced or even enforceable in practice.


1222 April 17, DEACON ROBERT OF READING (England)

Was burned for converting to Judaism. The deacon had converted for the love of a Jewess. He was dismissed from his position in the church and delivered to lay authorities who promptly burned him. In general, heretics were not burned in England until the late 14th century.


1224 JACOB ANATOLI (Naples, Italy)

Was invited by Emperor Frederick II to help establish a university. (see 1194)


1225 - 1274 THOMAS AQUINAS (Italy)

Catholic priest and theologian. He was recognized as “Doctor of the Church” for his contributions to Catholic theology ( Summa Theologica). While some of Aquinas’ philosophies are similar to that of Maimonides, his attitude reflected that of the Fourth Lateran council accusing Jews of deicide (see 1271).


1226 - 1270 LOUIS IX (SAINT) OF FRANCE

Sanctioned laws against Jews and encouraged disputations between Jewish and Christian theologians (Nicholas Donin,1240) in order to convert more Jews. At the same time that he oppressed the Jews (i.e. canceling all debts owed to them by Christians), he gave gifts and favors to any who converted. He recommended that the best way of winning an argument with a Jew was to drive a sword as far as it would go into his stomach.


1227 COUNCIL OF NARBONNE (France)

Met to implement the anti-Jewish decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.


1228 BAGHDAD (Persia)

According to a Moslem custom each (non-Moslem) communal leader had his face publicly slapped upon paying the poll tax for his community. The elderly leader of the Jewish community, Ibn Ash-Shuwaikh, asked to be allowed to make the payment at night so as to avoid the shame. His request was refused.


1228 JAMES I “ THE CONQUEROR“ ( Aragon)

Under strong pressure from the clergy he issued a number of restrictions against the Jews including holding public office. James (1208-1276)himself ignored his own laws and appointed many Jews as bailiffs, translators, diplomats, and to other administrative positions.This being said there was a strong increase in anti Jewish legislation both by the clergy and by the Cortes Generale the local (courts) legislative bodies. James himself used the anti Jewish pressure to enrich his own coffers as an act" of salvation" (see 1254).rnrnrn


1229 TREATY OF JAFFA (Eretz Israel)

Between Emperor Frederick II and the Sultan of Egypt. Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem were returned to the crusaders. Jews were once again forbidden to live in Jerusalem.


1229 BAHAYA AND SOLOMON ALCONSTANTINI (Saragossa)

Were granted revenues by James I for their help as translators and interpreters in his conquest of Mallorca. The brothers were very ambitious and rose to prominence in the court. Especially in later generations, the Alconstantini’s, and others in the Jewish aristocracy were strongly resented within the community. They were believed to be more concerned with their social status, than the plight of their less wealthy brethren which unfortunately, was often the case.


1229 HENRY III (England)

Jews were forced to pay various additional tallages during the 1220's and 30's. In 1229 an additional 8,000 mark tallage was imposed and in 1232 an additional 10,000 marks.




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