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1070 - 1139 MOSES IBN EZRA (Granada, Spain)

Poet and philosopher known for his profound spirituality and rich expressiveness. Ibn Ezra also wrote a history of Spanish Jewry where he claimed a Jewish presence in the Iberian Peninsula from the time of the second Temple.


The Seljuk's (a Turkish tribe) made a pact with the Abbasid rulers, whereby they would maintain much of the control of the East. The Seljuk's were strictly orthodox Moslems who believed in strengthening Islamic rule and law, while at the same time humiliating non-Moslems. They often destroyed churches and synagogues. The Crusades were partly a result of their harassment of pilgrims. Soon after the occupation of Jerusalem the talmudic Academy moved to Tyre.

1072 SILK MANUFACTURING (Calabria, southern Italy)

Was introduced by Jews in the town of Catanzaro, which became the silk producing capital of Italy. The Jews first arrived in the Calabria region in the first century and were expelled in 1510 after Spain took over the province.

1073 - 1134 DON ALONSO SANCHEZ ”el Batallador” (the Valiant) (Navarra, Spain)

During his 30 year reign he granted the Jews full civil rights.

1074 WORMS (Germany)

In reward for their support in his fight with the Pope, Henry IV granted the Jewish merchants of that city reductions on tolls.

1075 COLOGNE (Germany)

Archbishop Anno's death was mourned by the Jewish community, which held a memorial service for him even though it was the Shabbat. Just prior to his death he ordered that all his debts be paid, including those to his Jewsh creditors.


One of the most brilliant Talmudic scholars of his generation. Ibn Migsash studied under Alfasi (the Rif), who chose him to take over his position, despite the fact that Alfasi’ own son was also a scholar. He served as head of his Yeshiva for 38 years. Among his pupils were Maimon the father of Maimonides. Unfortunately, although he wrote extensively on the Talmud and is widely quoted by his contemporaries, very few of his works are in existence, or known to us today.

1078 POPE GREGORY VII (Hildebrand)

Prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.

1078 SYNOD OF GERONA (Spain)

Jews were forced to pay the same taxes as Christians to support the Church.

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