1060 - 1136 ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA (Spain)
Spanish philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Although he wrote in Hebrew (rather than in the common Arabic) many of his scientific books were translated into Latin, including his Hibbur ha-meshicha V'HaTishboret, which gave the area of a circle and helped introduce trigonometry to the west. His book on astronomy, Hokhmat Ha'Hizayon, is a definitive work on astronomy and the calculation of the calendar.
1060 - 1135 MEIR BEN SAMUEL (Ramerupt, France)
Rabbi and scholar. Meir was a son-in-law of Rashi and was one of the first Tosafists. Of his sons three are famous: Samuel b. Meir (Rashbam), Isaac b. Meir, and Jacob b. Meir Tam. In addition to his commentary on the Talmud, he edited the Kol Nidrei text into the prayer we recite today.
1063 POPE ALEXANDER (Spain)
In reaction to some of the disorders in Christian Spain, he issued a warning against attacking local Jewish communities - despite the fact that at the same time he was trying to organize a "crusade" against Moslem Spain.
1064 MAYENCE (Germany)
The archbishop organized a pilgrimage of 7,000 to Jerusalem.
1064 PRAGUE (Bohemia)
Western Jews arriving here were not allowed residence and so moved east to Russia.
1065 FRENCH CHRISTIANS (France-Spain)
Attacked the Saracens in Spain to drive out the infidels (non-believers). On their way to Spain they stopped in a number of towns and killed any Jews they found. This type of "outbreak" became more common during the Crusades, the idea being "why travel to kill the infidel when we have so many near to home? Get them first!"
1065 - 1173 BENJAMIN OF TULDE (Tudela, Spain)
Jewish traveler and historian. Much of our knowledge of this period is derived from his journal, Sefer Ha-massa'ot (Book of Travels), including the story of
David Alroy, the false Messiah (see 1160).
1066 POPE ALEXANDER II (France-Spain)
Warned French knights fighting to reconquer Spain to stop "excesses" against the Jews. His advice wasn't heeded.
1066 NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND
Jews arrived in increasing numbers from Normandy to settle in London, and then spread in ever widening circles to York, Norwich, Oxford, Bristol, and Lincoln. The documented history of Jewish settlement in England dates from the Norman Conquest, although Jews were said to have arrived there soon after the conquest. They tended to settle in large towns and commercial centers, close to the royal castle for protection against the sheriff.
1066 December 30, GRANADA (Spain)
Joseph ibn Nagrela, son of Samuel ibn Nagrela, was murdered. He had served as vizier to Badis, ruler of the Berbers. There had been constant tension between the Berbers and the Arab population which led to a civil war. Joseph attempted to ease the conflict between the two camps and prevent excesses against the local Arabs. His enemies included Abu Ishak, Berber advisor to the prince, who accused him of trying to cede the city to a neighboring prince. Badis ordered Joseph killed and crucified. In the ensuing massacre of the Jewish population 1,500 families were killed, including Joseph's wife and son. A few years later Jews were readmitted to Granada and resumed high offices.