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C. 69 DEATH OF JOSHUA BEN GAMLA (Eretz Israel)

High priest and education reformer. He proposed that children begin studies at age six. That public schools be opened in every town and that there be a supervisory system which would oversee teachers and prevent students from being rejected or expelled without reason. He is considered the founder of the Jewish educational system


415 ST. CYRIL, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA (Egypt)

Incited the Greeks to kill or expel the Jews. Cyril (376-44) who was appointed patriarch of Alexandria in 412 forced his way into the synagogue at the head of a mob, expelled the Jews and gave their property to the crowd. The Prefect Orestes, who refused to condone this behavior, was set upon and almost stoned to death. Only one Jew, Adamanlius, agreed to be baptized. Within a few years Jews were allowed to return, but a majority of them returned only after the Mohammedans conquered Egypt.


624 - 627 JEWISH ARABIAN TRIBES

Were attacked by Mohammed. There were some twenty Jewish tribes had living in the Hijaz (Western Arabia), for centuries. Legend has it that they were sent by Joshua to fight the Amalakites. Others claim that many of them settled at Yatrib (Yathrib) later known as Medina, after the destruction of the first temple . The majority immigrated to Arabia after the Roman persecutions in Eretz Israel. Some of the tribes worked in agriculture others in crafts like goldsmithing. Two of the tribes (Qurayza and Nadir) considered themselves al kahinan (kohanim) One by one they were either expelled or destroyed for refusing to convert to Mohammedanism. Three of the strongest tribes were known as Banu Nadir (Nadhir), Banu Qaynuqa (Kainuka) and Banu Qurayza (Eruzia).


625 BANU NADIR EXPELLED

Mohammed demanded that the Jewish tribe contribute ‘blood money’ for two people that were killed by his own (Muslim) troops, the Banu Nadir refused. Consequently Mohammed accused them of plotting against him and besieged them. After 14 days when no promised help arrived, they surrendered to the Moslem army. The Banu Nadir were known for owning some of the most fertile land in the area. They were only allowed to take what they could on their camels. Everything else was confiscated with a significant portion going directly to Mohammed.


629 DAGOBERT I(Gaul)

Encouraged by Emperor Heraclius, he expelled all non-converted Jews from Frankish dominions. For the next 150 years, little was heard from any Jewish community there.


672 HILDERUC (Spain)

Governor of Nimes in Spain, he revolted against King Wamba. Many Jews joined him. Duke Paul was sent to put down the rebellion, but converted to Judaism instead. Nevertheless, the rebellion failed and the Jews of Narbonne were expelled, only to return within twenty years.


820 ARCHBISHOP AGOBARD (779-840) (Lyon, Carolingian Empire)

"Proved" in essays that Jews were born slaves and accursed. Agobard forcibly converted Jewish children, offering them or their parents no choice in the matter. This is the first time in France that such an act was recorded. (Until this time Jews were offered the choice of either converting or being expelled or killed - but there was a "choice"). He also urged the sons (especially Lothair) of Charlemagne's successor, Louis the Pious, to revolt. After the revolt (833) he was disposed, but was later reinstated by Louis. Six of his anti-Semitic essays have survived; which are systematically aimed at humiliating and eradicating the Jewish community.


882 - 942 (26 Iyar 4702) SA'ADIA (Sa'adia Gaon) BEN JOSEPH (Babylon)

Born in Egypt, he moved to Babylon in 928 to head the academy at Sura. He revived the waning influence of the academy and wrote on many subjects, including grammar, halacha and philosophy. As one of the foremost opponents of Karaism, he wrote the exposition Emunot Vedeot, which became very popular. A grave conflict arose between Sa'adia and the Exilarch David ben Zaccai when he refused to endorse a judgment of the Exilarch's court in which Ben Zaccai was an interested party. The issue was not settled for many years and demonstrated Sa'adia's unyielding defense of his principles. He was subsequently expelled and moved to Baghdad. On Purim 937, the opponents were reconciled, and a few years later Sa'adia adopted Ben Zaccai's orphan grandchildren.


965 July 9, OTTO (Germany)

Gave the Bishop of Magdeburg jurisdiction over all merchants and Jews for taxation purposes. In general, under Otto (912-973) the Jews were not expelled or forcibly converted. They were considered the personal property of the King. In the individual towns, the Jews were offered privileges or charters, usually through a contract whereby they would be protected by the crown, in return for financial fealty. The word privilege (privilegium) is found in many documents related to the position of the Jews under various rulers. The term denotes a "private law", or rule and refers to an individual, group or institution.


985 SPARTA (Greece)

Upon being approached to try to stop a plague of pestilence, St. Nicon Metanoites refused until the Jews were expelled so he "would not be contaminated by their customs...or religion."


1009 October 18, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The French monk and "historian" Raoul ( Rodulfus) Glaber (who had previously recorded that the Jews were the "Habitual ally of the Devil") claimed that the Jews were responsible. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns. Although it was rebuilt by Constantine IX in 1048 it served as one of the “ excuses” for the first crusade.


1010 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

Caliph al-Hakim of Egypt destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The French Christian "Historian" Raoul Glaber (who had previously recorded that the Jews were the "Habitual ally of the Devil") claimed that the Jews were responsible for this. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.


1012 MAYENCE (Germany)

Emperor Henry II expelled the Jews, probably in reaction to an anti-Christian pamphlet which was produced by a new convert to Judaism, Wecelin (a former Cleric and Deacon). The Jews were allowed to return the following year.


1072 SILK MANUFACTURING (Calabria, southern Italy)

Was introduced by Jews in the town of Catanzaro, which became the silk producing capital of Italy. The Jews first arrived in the Calabria region in the first century and were expelled in 1510 after Spain took over the province.


1113 April, FIRST ANTI JEWISH RIOTS IN KIEV

During the reign of grand duke Svyatopolk II (1093- 1113) the Jews resided in relative peace. This despite the anti- Jewish ranting of Theodosius, abbot at the famous monastery in Pechera. Upon the death of the duke wide spread rioting took place with Jewish homes plundered . Russian historians claim that the new Prince Vladimir Monomakh expelled all the Jews from Russia, but there is no evidence that this actually happened.


1171 BOLOGNA, ITALY

Jews were expelled. This was one of the few times during this period that Italian Jews were persecuted.


1181 ABBEY OF ST. EDMUNDS (England)

A dispute broke out between William the Sacristan (Sexton) of the Abbey and his associate Samson. The Jews and the local townspeople sided with William. Unfortunately, it was Samson who came to power the next year as Abbot. In 1190, after the Coronation riots, Samson demanded that the Jews should be placed under his authority rather than the Kings. When they refused, they were expelled under guard.


1254 FRANCE

Louis IX expelled the Jews from France. This signaled the end of the Tosafists period. Most left for Germany and then further east.


1261 DUKE HENRY II (Netherlands)

Ordered in his will that all Jews be expelled from the province of Brabant. His widow requested and received an affirmation from Thomas Aquinas stating that it was permitted to benefit from the Jews, and the edict was cancelled.


1287 May 4, ENGLAND

Jews were arrested and again accused of "clipping" the coinage. Although there was no evidence, the community as a whole was convicted and ordered to be expelled. A ransom of 4,000 (others say 12,000) pounds of silver was paid.


1289 GASCONY (France)

Jews were expelled from France and their property was confiscated. (Edward I of France had incurred large debts and he needed money quickly.)


1306 July 22, PHILIP THE FAIR (France)

Expelled the ( approximately 100,000) Jews from his lands after arresting all of them (on the day after the 9th of Av) and confiscating their property. Phillip began planning the expulsion six months in advance. All their property and belongings were auctioned with the king receiving the takings. Their debts were also transferred to the King and he received the payments from their Christian debtors. Gradually, they were allowed to drift back. In 1315 his son Louis cancelled the decree but they were expelled again in 1322.


1315 LOUIS X (France)

Philip's Iv’s son and successor. He allowed the Jews back into France largely for financial considerations. (Jews were often expelled because of pressure from the Church, economic or political considerations, only to be readmitted at a later date.) The Jews were promised one year's notice should permission to return be rescinded. He also returned their synagogues and cemeteries.


1322 June 24, CHARLES IV OF FRANCE

Expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year's warning.


1322 June 24, CHARLES IV " The Fair" OF FRANCE

The son of Phillip IV, expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year's warning.


1326 July, Barcelona (Aragon, Spain)

Sixty families of Jewish refugees were permitted to settle in Aragon by James II after being expelled from France. For the most part the king managed to protected these Jews even those who had been previously baptized


1326 PRESSBURG

At the city councils request, the Jews were expelled.


1349 January 16, BASEL (Switzerland)

The guilds brought up charges against the Jews accusing them of poisoning the wells. Despite an attempted defense by the town council, 600 Jews together with the rabbi were burned to death. One hundred and forty children were taken from their parents and forcible baptized. The victims were left unburied, the cemetery destroyed and the synagogue turned into a church. The remaining Jews were expelled and not readmitted until 1869.


1386 STRASBOURG (Germany)

After an inter-community dispute, the Jewish community was expelled on orders from Wenceslaus. Their property was confiscated.


1394 September 17, CHARLES VI (France)

Using the pretense that a convert in Paris, Denis Machuit, returned to Judaism, he once again expelled the Jews. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon.


1420 May 23, ARCHDUKE ALBERT (Albrecht)(1397-1439)(Austria)

Later to become king of Bohemia and Hungary as “Albert the Magnanimous”, accused a rich Jew, Israel of Enns, of purchasing a wafer in order to desecrate it. He ordered the imprisonment and forcible conversion of all Jews in the surrounding Viennese area. Those who refused were expelled. Those who were well off were kept in prison, many of whom were tortured and their property confiscated.rnrn


1420 LYONS (France)

All Jews were expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earlier. The only Jews left in France remained in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.


1435 May 5, SPEYER (Germany)

Jews were expelled. One of the refugees was Moses Mentzlav who moved to Italy. His son, Israel Nathan, founded the printing house of Soncino.


C. 1440 - 1524 DAVID BEN SOLOMON IBN YAHYA (Portugal- Naples- Corfu – Constantinople)

Rabbi, biblical commentator, and grammarian. In 1496 Ibn Yahya was forced to flee Portugal after a death sentence was pass on him by king John (Joao) II ( 1455-1495) for encouraging conversos to return to active Judaism. He fled first to Naples where he served as Rabbi until expelled by the French losing all of his possessions. His works include Leshon Limudim and (probably) Shekel Hakodesh on grammar, Hilkhot Ṭerefot on ritual law, as well as commentaries on Proverbs, Psalms, and Maimonides’ guide for the perplexed.


C. 1445 - 1516 JACOB BEN SOLOMON IBN HABIB (CASTILE - SALONIKA)

Rabbinical leader and scholar. In the years following the expulsion he focused on the practical Halachic problems that arose on a daily basis. Ibn Habib strived to find ways to ease the sufferings and difficulties of those expelled from Spain, within the realms of Halacha. He is most remembered for his Ein Ya’akov ( Well of Jacob), a compendium of the agadot” (non-legalistic literature) from the Talmud. His emphasis’ reflect the problems facing his generation. Over 100 editions of Ein Ya'akov have been published, and it remains just as popular today as it was 500 years ago.


1450 October 5, EXPULSION OF JEWS (Lower Bavaria)

Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria, successor to Henry of Landshut, who had invited the Jews to live in his area, decided to banish them. He first tried conversion, then had many Jews arrested, then fined them 32,000 florins, and finally expelled them


1466 January, SICILY

King John of Sicily gave formal permission to establish a Jewish University in medicine and law. The idea was not acted upon, and in 1492 the Jews were expelled by order of the Spanish crown.


1468 SULTAN QA'IT BAY/QAITBAY (Egypt)

A few months after his ascension to the Sultanate (1468-95), he forced the Jews to pay a fee of 75,000 gold pieces or be expelled. This severely impoverished the community.


1475 March 23, SIMON OF TRENT (Italy)

One of the more notorious blood libels. A Franciscan monk, Bernardinus of Feltre, came to Trent and began preaching Lent sermons against the Jews. A week before Easter a boy by the name of Simon drowned in the river Adige. The monk charged the Jews with using the body for its blood. The body washed up a few days later near the house of a Jew who brought it to the Bishop Honderbach. 17 Jews were tortured for over two weeks. Some confessed while being tortured and 6 Jews were burned. Two more were strangled. A temporary hiatus was called by Pope Sixtus IV, but after five years the trial was reopened and 5 more Jews were executed. The papal inquest agreed with the trial, Simon was beatified, and all Jews were expelled for 300 years. The trial served as the basis for anti-Semitic writings for hundreds of years. Only in 1965 was Simon debeatified.


1483 January 1, JEWS EXPELLED FROM ANDALUSIA

Including Seville and Cordova . Ferdinand knew that this half measure would give him support in the south in his war against Granada, and yet not totally alienate the Jews whom he still needed. This was a foretaste of the edict of 1492 which mentions this expulsion.


1490 GENEVA (Switzerland)

Jew were expelled and not allowed to return for 300 years. Jews had lived there since their expulsion from France by Philip Augustus in 1182.


1492 March 31, EDICT OF EXPULSION (Spain)

King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile, signed the Alhambra Decree. Since professing Jews were not under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, the Church leveled a ritual murder accusation against them ( see 1490).Thus both Jews and Conversos were ordered to be expelled of from Spain within three months beginning May the first. Jewish leaders, including Don Isaac Abravanel, offered compensation for its annulment but their appeal was rejected. In his plea to the king he wrote, “On behalf of my people, the people of Israel,…, I declare them blameless and innocent of all crimes declared in this edict of abomination. The crime, the transgression, is for you, not us, to bear". It is estimated that approximately 200,000 Jews (some quote higher numbers) were living in Spain. They were forced to sell all their property and prohibited from taking out any precious metals. Most synagogues were taken over by the church without any compensation. As the borders on the north were only opened for practicing Christians, approximately half of them found temporary sanctuary in Portugal. Another 50,000 fled to friendlier shores (e.g. Turkey) and the rest (approximately 60,000) remained as "Christians". By July 31 no professing Jews were left in Spain.


1492 October 24, MECKLENBURG (Germany)

Jews were again accused of stabbing a consecrated wafer. Twenty-seven Jews were burned, including two women, and all the Jews were expelled from the duchy. The spot where they were killed is still called the Judenberg.


1493 January 12, JEWS WERE EXPELLED FROM SICILY

Sicily became a province of Aragon in 1412. Approximately 37,000 Jews had to leave Sicily. Despite an invitation during the 18th century, Jews, except in extremely small numbers, never returned.


1495 December 26, SAVONAROLA (Italy)

Expelled the Medici and the Jews from Florence. The Jews, who had previously served as the Medici's bankers, were replaced by the Monte di Pieta, a public loan bank.


1495 EXPULSION FROM LITHUANIA

Alexander the Grand duke of Lithuania ( brother to king John Albert of Poland) expelled the Jews from his districts including Grodno, Brest, Lutzk, and Troki, and confiscated their properties. He allowed them to return 7 years later and some of their properties were returned.


1496 December 5, (23 Tevet 5257) MANUEL OF PORTUGAL

During the first year of his reign he befriended the Jews, but his desire to unite the Iberian Peninsula through marriage to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella changed all that. Four years after the expulsion of Jews from Spain, he ordered them expelled from Portugal within 11 months (October 31, 1497). As his real desire was not to see the Jews leave, he only opened one port, which first forced most of them to remain behind after the designated date, and then forced them to be baptized.


1496 March 12, JEWS ARE EXPELLED FROM STYRIA, AUSTRIA

By Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519), but only after the government of Styria agreed to pay him 38,000 florins to compensate him for his loss of revenue from the Jews. In his justification he wrote that Jews have "repeatedly insulted and desecrated the holy sacrament, tortured and killed Christian children and used their blood …. cheated people, and impoverished and ruined many noble and other families..."


1497 January 6, GRAZ (Austria, Holy Roman Empire)

Emperor Maximilian I expelled the Jews. Jews had been settled there since 1160, thirty years after the town was established.


1503 ALEXANDER JAGELLON (Poland)

King of Poland (1501-1506) allowed the Jews to return to Lithuania eight years after he expelled them while serving as grand duke of Lithuania. He also appointed Jacob Pollack as Chief Rabbi (see also 1470).


1504 December 27, MOSCOW (Russia)

"Proselytizing" Jews in Moscow and Kiev were expelled after a few high officials converted to Judaism.


1510 July 19, BRANDENBURG (Germany)

Jews were accused of desecrating the host and stealing church vessels. Joachim the Elector had thirty-eight Jews burned at the stake in the market place along with the real offender (a Christian). Another two accepted Christianity and were mercifully beheaded. Soon after, all the Jews were expelled from the entire electorate of Brandenburg. All the accused were proved completely innocent at the Diet of Frankfurt in 1539, and those that left were permitted to return.


1510 November 23, NAPLES (Italy)

The Jews were expelled. Fifteen years earlier the Spanish had conquered the island and within a year had issued an order for the banishment of all Jews, which was never carried out. Now the community, which had existed since Roman times, was forced out. The only Jews remaining were the "New Christians" (who were to be expelled 5 years later) and 200 wealthy families, who paid a new annual tax for such tolerance.


1512 REGENSBURG (RATISBON) (Germany)

The Jewish community was expelled after rival princes could not agree on who should receive the Jewish taxes.


1515 January 1, LAIBACH AUSTRIA

Acting on the petition of its citizens, Emperor Maximilian I (1459- 1519) expelled the Jews from Laibach. Only in 1867 were the Jews once again give the right to settle in the city.


1519 February 21, RATISBON (Regensburg, Germany)

Upon the death of Maximillian, the Jewish community of approximately 800 (one of the oldest in Germany), was expelled. The synagogue was destroyed and a chapel built in its place. About 5,000 gravestones were taken the Jewish cemetery and used for building.


1526 November 9, HUNGARY AND CROATIA

Following the short occupation by the Ottoman Empire of Buda, the Jews were expelled after being falsely accused by the Hapsburgs of aiding the Turks against Hungary. Many Jews had left Hungary with the departing Turks in hopes of a better life. Jews were not allowed to return for almost 200 years.


1541 FERDINAND I ( Bohemia)

Accused the Jews of helping the Turks during the Siege of Buda. As a punishment, Ferdinand (1503-1564) enacted a special property tax. Later that year, with the exception of fifteen families, he expelled them. He readmitted them ( for a large fee) in 1554, and expelled them again five years later, only to welcome them back for another substantial fee in 1561.


1542 CHURCH SYNOD (Piotrkow, Poland)

As the Reformation began to make headway in Poland, the Catholic Church under Archbishop Peter Gamrat and the Papal Nuncio Luigi Lippomano decided to combat it by increasing the level of Judeophobia and demanding that Jews be expelled or at least be put into ghettos. rnHost desecration and ritual murder accusations, led by church leaders, became far more common throughout the next 200 years.


1547 THE FIRST RITUAL ACCUSATION IN POLAND

Two Jews were accused of kidnapping the son of a local tailor and crucifying him in the town of Rawa. They were burned at the stake and the rest expelled. Over the next 240 years there would be 81 ritual murder accusations and trials in Poland. Thirty-two in the 18th century alone.


1550 April 2, EXPULSION FROM GENOA (Italy)

A physician named Joseph Hacohen (see 1496)and his nephew tried to open a practice in Genoa. They were chased out of the city. The rest of the Jews were expelled soon afterwards.


1558 September 22, RECANATI (Italy)

Under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph (Paul) Moro, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on the Day of Atonement. Holding a crucifix, he tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occurred. Eventually the entire Jewish population was expelled.


1569 POPE PIUS V

Ordered the Jews of Bologna expelled. He gave the cemetery to the nuns at the convent of St. Peter the Martyr. He commanded them to " Destroy all (Jewish) graves…exhume the cadavers…and move them to where ever they please".


1609 LONDON (England)

A small Converso colony founded by Queen Elizabeth was expelled on charges of Judaizing.


1618 - 1638 THIRTY YEARS WAR (Europe)

Between Catholic and Protestant forces in Europe. The fighting centered around Germany, Austria, France and the Netherlands (Ferdinand II of Spain vs. Christian IV of Denmark). In Vienna, Jews suffered during the occupation of Imperial soldiers. Throughout many towns in Germany and Moravia, the Jewish population was expelled, which resulted in thousands of refugees fleeing to Cracow and other Polish cities. After the war, owing to the general destruction and decline of the local populations, France, Moravia, and Germany encouraged foreigners- including Jews - to settle and help rebuild their economies.


1656 PERSIAN EXPULSION

Shah Abbas II (1632 -1666) declaring that all Jews were unclean, forced them to either convert or be expelled. Many Jews accepted Islam on the outside, but continued to practice Judaism in secret similar to their brethren 150 years earlier in Spain.


1661 SHAH ABBAS II (Persia)

Five years after he forcibly converted or expelled the Jews, he reversed his decision. This was mainly due to the loss of revenues previously collected from Jews ( Jizya). He allowed them to return to openly practice Judaism in return for them resuming the payment of the poll tax and wear a distinctive mark on their clothing.


1670 February 28, VIENNA (Austria)

Leopold I ordered Jews to be expelled within a few months. Although Leopold was reluctant to lose the large amount of taxes (50,000 Florins) paid by the Jews, he was persuaded to do so by Margaret, the daughter of, Phillip IV, the Spanish Regent and a strong follower of the Jesuits. (see 1630, Samuel Oppenheimer). Margaret blamed the death of her firstborn on the tolerance shown to the Jews.The last Jews left on the 9th of Av.


1678 YEMEN

Iman-Ahmed he Hassan offered Jews the choice of either converting or being expelled to a hot barren land near Aden known as Mawza. The iman also closed all synagogues and prohibited public prayer by Jews. They were allowed to return one year later, though it is estimated that 2/3 of them did not survive the year. Upon their return, they found their homes occupied by Moslems. Many of the smaller communities disappeared and were not rebuilt. Among the exiles was Shalem (Shalom) Shabazi, who wrote over 550 historical, ethical and religious poems. He is considered the greatest Yemenite Jewish poet.


1683 July 14, UHERSKY BROD (Moravia - Eastern Europe)

Hungarian rebels known as Kuruc attacked the town, killing most of its Jewish inhabitants. Many of the Jews were recent refugees expelled from Vienna in 1670. One of the victims was the Rabbi and Kabbalist, Nathan Nata Hannover, who had survived the Chmielniki attacks. He was the author of Yeven MeZulah, which dealt with Chmielnicki's massacres and Sha'arei Ziyyon, a collection of prayers for Tikun Hazot. The survivors fled to Hungary.


1712 KING AUGUSTUS II (Poland)

Reneging on his promise to stop further persecution of the Jews, he expelled them from Zausmer on a murder libel.


1713 April 11, GIBRALTAR

Was ceded to Great Britain by Spain under the Treaties of Utrecht. One clause in the treaty read, "no leave shall be given under any pretence whatsoever, either to Jews or Moors, to reside or have their dwellings in the said town of Gibraltar." Although in 1717 the Jews were expelled, they were readmitted permanently the following year. The new Jewish population consisted of both English citizens and Moroccan immigrants.


1740 February 3, CHARLES OF BOURBON ( Sicily/ Naples)

Son of Philip V, king of Spain, and considered to be the first Bourbon king of Naples, offered Jews the opportunity to resettle in the two Sicilies. In actuality the 20 families who arrived, lived under severe restrictions and were violently resented by the clergy-led local populace. Within 6 years only three families had remained, these were soon to be expelled (September 18, 1746).


1742 December 1, CZARINA ELIZABETH PETROVNA (Russia)

Expelled 35,000 Jews from parts of Russia. The Empress ( 1709-1762) was the daughter of Catherine I and Peter the Great of Russia. When advised of the financial loss she allegedly responded "I do not want any benefit from the enemies of Christ."


1761 March 4, JEWS EXPELLED FROM LUBECK (Germany)

At the behest of the guilds. The following year only one Jew was allowed to live in Lubeck, and this only after paying a heavy fee. As far back as the 16th century (except for a few years during Napoleons time (1810), Jewish residence was for the most part prohibited. This didn’t change until the revolution of 1848.


1775 February 22, EXPULSION FROM THE WARSAW AREA

As Jews were generally not allowed to live permanently in Warsaw they had settled in the outlying areas including a settlement known as New Jerusalem. The local populace organized street attacks and their expulsion, taking over their property. Fifteen years later after the Jews had returned, they were once again attacked and expelled


1783 MOROCCO

The Sultan expelled the Jews after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom. This was the third time they were expelled within a number of years.


1786 JEDDA (Arabia)

The small mostly Yemenite Jewish community in Jedda was expelled and not allowed to return.


1825 January 13, RUSSIA

Prior to his death, Alexander I expelled all the Jews from Mohilev and Vitebsk.


1830 - 1831 POLAND

Revolted against Russia. Even during the revolt, General Chlopicki expelled the Jews from the National Guard at the insistence of the officers. The Jews formed their own unit called "the Beardlings".


1831 THE “ORGANIC REGULATION (Romania)

Was the first “constitution” in the Danubian provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia (pre- Romania). All Jews were required to register with local authorities, and to indicate their professions in order that “those Jews who [cannot] demonstrate their usefulness [could] be expelled…”


1850 December 12, COMMISSION AGAINST VAGRANCY ( Romania)

Interior Minister Ion Bratianu, (1821-1891) instituted a number of anti Jewish legislation's. In his "commission against vagrancy", Jews were defined as a vagabonds who could be expelled at will from the country.


1862 December 17, GENERAL GRANT (USA)

In issuing his infamous order 11, he ordered all "Jews as a class" expelled from his lines. In New York City 7,000 Jews marched in protest against his decision. Lincoln rescinded Grant's order.


1891 March 28 - 29, (Passover) JEWS EXPELLED FROM MOSCOW (Russia)

Grand Duke Sergei, the Czar's brother who had just become governor of Moscow, ordered the expulsion of all Jews from the city. Permission to remain was only given to those who would convert or to women who were willing to become prostitutes. In addition, a few thousand former cantonists who were registered and wealthy merchants were allowed to continue residing in Moscow. In January 1892, in middle of a deep cold spell, the Jewish quarter was surrounded and Jews who had until then avoided expulsion were hunted by the police and firemen. In all, approximately 14,000 Jewish families were expelled to the Pale.


1910 KIEV (Ukraine)

Twelve hundred Jewish families were expelled.


1921 AUSTRIA

Expelled seventy-three thousand out of the hundred thousand Galician Jewish refugees. The remainder were either too sick or too old to leave.


1934 AFGHANISTAN

Two thousand Jews were expelled from towns and cities and forced to live in the wilderness.


1944 August 23, BUCHAREST LIBERATED (Romania)

By the Russians. Ana Pauker (1890-1960), who had been imprisoned for being a communist, returned and founded the Romanian Democratic Front. She became minister of Foreign Affairs in 1947, but was later expelled, being accused (wrongly) of favoring emigration to Israel.




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