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1943 December, U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT

Issued a new visa application which was four feet long. The waiting period for processing was now nine months. In addition Jews in Nazi held territories had no way of making visa applications since there were no American consulates. Any refugee who succeeded in reaching countries that had an American consulate (Spain, Portugal) was now considered "not in acute danger" and was therefore denied a visa.


1943 July, U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT (USA)

Issued a new visa application which was four feet long. The waiting period for processing was now nine months. In addition, Jews in Nazi-held territories had no way of making a visa application since there were no American consulates. Any refugee who succeeded in reaching countries which had an American consulate (Spain, Portugal) was considered to be "not in acute danger" and was therefore denied a visa.


1943 February 10, U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT TELEGRAPH 354

Sent by Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles to all American consulates "suggested" that they not to accept any " private messages" or reports regarding the German actions against Jews. This effectively closed off almost all reports regarding the Holocaust from even reaching the United States. Although reportedly Welles may have been personally sympathetic to the "Jewish problem", he totally identified with the State Departments policies and carried them out with alacrity.


1683 July 14, UHERSKY BROD (Moravia - Eastern Europe)

Hungarian rebels known as Kuruc attacked the town, killing most of its Jewish inhabitants. Many of the Jews were recent refugees expelled from Vienna in 1670. One of the victims was the Rabbi and Kabbalist, Nathan Nata Hannover, who had survived the Chmielniki attacks. He was the author of Yeven MeZulah, which dealt with Chmielnicki's massacres and Sha'arei Ziyyon, a collection of prayers for Tikun Hazot. The survivors fled to Hungary.


1918 November 20, - 1920 UKRAINIAN POGROMS

After the fall of the Czar there was a strong movement to establish an independent political entity. The Jewish parties voted against the severance, with Russia leading to direct attacks on the Jews. One of the first attacks was in Lvov where 72 Jews were killed and 443 wounded.


1385 ULM (Germany)

At a meeting of the Swabian League cities it was decided that one fourth of the debts owed to Jews should be cancelled and the other three-quarters should be paid to the cities. Jews were prevented from emigrating.


661 - 750 UMAYYAD (Omayyad) DYNASTY (Syria)

Reigned from Damascus, Syria. This repressive rule failed to unite the Arabs and embittered non-Moslems by their harsh persecutions. They Were the first Muslim dynasty, and reigned from Damascus, Syria where they transformed Islam into a major empire. Their repressive rule failed to unite the Arabs partly due to the fact that they were not descended from Mohammed, and partly due to their passing their power dynastically. The Umayyads were the first to rule after the first four Caliphs which were directly linked to Mohammed. Muawiya I was its first Umayyad Caliph.How Jews fared, depended on the Caliph. The Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid family, who claimed the right of supreme power.


1940 April, - May, UNION FOR ARMED STRUGGLE (ZWZ) (Poland)

Attacked German targets in Poland while the Germans were busy in the West. All this changed as German victories increased. General Sosnkowski ordered (June18, July 20) that all such attacks cease immediately. On paper, the Union had over 300,000 people at their command. In reality only a few thousand became partisans and many of these actual fought against Jewish and Russian partisans. The general directive stipulated that there be no attacks on Germans within Polish borders while they were still winning the war in order to prevent reprisals.


1941 November 29, UNION GENERALE DES ISRAELITES EN FRANCE (UGIF) (France)

Was founded. The UGIF was to function similarly to the Judenrats in Poland and Germany. Officially the Jewish administrative body, its real purpose was to make it easy for the Nazis to keep track off all the Jews in preparation for their deportation to the east.


1873 July 8, UNION OF AMERICAN HEBREW CONGREGATIONS (USA)

Of the Reform Movement was launched in Cincinnati under the leadership of Dr. Isaac Meyer Wise.


1898 June 8, UNION OF ORTHODOX JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF AMERICA (U.O.J.C.A.)

Was established. The OU, as it became known, is the largest organization of Orthodox synagogues in the U.S.A. Today it is known for kashrut supervision on thousands of products in North America. It plays an important role in informal Jewish education through its student organization Yavneh and its National Conference of Synagogue Youth (NCSY) groups. It also sponsores the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists.


1413 UNION OF POLAND AND LITUHANIA

Under Under King Vladislav Yagilu (Jagiello) the "privileges" of the Jews were temporarily reduced.


1579 UNION OF UTRECHT (Protestant) (Holland)

Formed as a loose confederation in the Northern Netherlands (Holland). Its purpose was to counteract the League of Arras formed by the Spanish Catholics in the Low Countries (i.e. Belgium). This marked the beginning of an enlightened atmosphere regarding the Jews in the Netherlands.


1888 UNITED HEBREW TRADES (USA)

Established in New York by Morris Helquit as a Jewish union. Its official correspondence was carried out in Yiddish.


1947 November 29, UNITED NATIONS (New York City, USA)

Voted in favor of the establishment of the State of Israel as a national homeland for the Jewish people in 55 percent of the country. The vote consisted of 33 in favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. Jews around the world reacted with dancing in the streets. The Arabs reacted with threats of violence.


1947 May 14, UNITED NATIONS (New York City, USA)

After a number of strong speeches supporting the establishment of a Jewish state, a special commission was established. Known as UNSCOP (United Nations Special Commission of Palestine), it consisted of eleven members. In their report, published on August 31, 1947, the majority recommended partitioning Palestine into two states. Jerusalem was to be internationalized corpus separatum.


1942 January 1, UNITED NATIONS (Washington, DC, USA)

Was founded as an assembly of the nations fighting Germany, Italy and Japan - the Axis powers. Twenty-six nations were among the original signatories. In the fall of that year, the Revisionist (New Zionist) Organization of America called on the United Nations to apply the "Four Freedoms" as delineated by President Roosevelt a year earlier to the Jewish people as well and to allow them to be represented. Roosevelt's four freedoms included speech and expression, religion, want (economic),and fear (arms reduction etc).


1942 December 17, UNITED NATIONS DECLARATION

By the 3 major allies and 8 occupied countries, condemned the German governments "intention to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe" and committed itself to establishing a war crimes commission after the war. One possible result was that Himmler began his attempt to bargain for Jewish lives after this, partially in order to be seen in a more "favorable light."


1942 January 23, UNITED PARTISANS ORGANIZATION (UPO) (Vilna, Lithuania)

Also known as the FPO (Fareynikte Partisaner Organisatsye) was founded in Vilna. It was the first organization which united the left-wing Zionists, the revisionists, the Bund and the communists. Its leaders included Isaac Wittenberg (communist), Abba Kovner (HaShomer HaTzair) and Joseph Glazman (revisionist). They were later joined by Abraham Chovnik (Bund). Its goals included armed revolt, sabotage, and contact with partisans in the forests. Like other groups, the main debate was whether to fight in the ghetto or join the partisans. Wittenberg convinced the others to accept the former. An underground press was founded which played a vital role in forging identification cards as well as bringing information to the populace.


1910 UNITED STATES

The first Yiddish school was founded.


1917 April 6, UNITED STATES

Declared war on Germany. Approximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. army. Roughly 5.7% of the solders were Jewish, though Jews made up only 3.25% of the general population.


1917 June 10, UNITED STATES

Three hundred and thirty-five thousand people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.


1925 UNITED STATES

For a short period of time the communists succeeded in taking over the most important local branches of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.


1934 - 1945 UNITED STATES

Only agreed to accept around 1000 refugee children. Britain, Belgium, Sweden, France, and Holland all took in more.


1941 December 8, UNITED STATES DECLARED WAR ON JAPAN (USA)

After the attack on Pearl Harbor. Before the war ended over half a million Jewish soldiers joined the American Army. Over 10,000 were killed, 24,000 wounded, and 36,000 received decorations for bravery.


1913 February 13, UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA (USA)

Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founded the United Synagogue of America, the association of Conservative synagogues in the United States and Canada. In 1957 it organized the World Council of Synagogues with membership in 22 countries.


1947 August 31, UNSCOP REPORT (New York City, USA)

Was published. Although many were disappointed in the size of the proposed Jewish state, Zionist leaders accepted the plan. Britain refused to implement it.


1781 URANUS

Was discovered by Sir William Frederick Hershel.


1860 February 21, URIAH P. LEVY (1792-1862)

Is appointed Commodore of the Eastern Mediterranean fleet. Levy a naval officer, found himself facing many anti-Semitic obstacles in his career, and was eventually forced to turn to a court of inquiry in his argument against the navy. The court ruled in his favor, and he was appointed Commodore in the U.S. Navy, a post which he held until his death. He is also remembered for his fight to abolish capital punishment within the navy.


1590 - 1640 URIEL ACOSTA/Da Acosta (Amsterdam, Holland)

A descendant of a Converso family, he was raised as a Christian and became chief treasurer of an abbey. Acosta decided to return to Judaism after studying the Old Testament. He fled to Amsterdam, where he grew disillusioned and attacked Jewish tradition. He was excommunicated, reinstated and excommunicated again. He found the disciplinary penance offered him in the presence of the congregation too difficult and committed suicide.


1881 - 1900 USA

600,000 Jews entered from Russian and Romania.


1922 September 21, USA

The United States Congress and President Harding approved the Balfour Declaration.


140 USHA (Eretz Israel)

After the disaster of the Bar Kochba revolt, the Lower Galilee replaced Yabneh as the center of talmudic learning and the Rabbinical Court (Sanhedrin) in Eretz Israel. Among the Tannaim studying there were Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Simeon b. Gamaliel, Rabbi Judah HaNasi and Rabbi Judah b. Ilai. One of their important contributions was Takanot Usha (Ordinances of Usha), which included the following laws:
1. A father must support his daughter until marriage and his son at least until the age of 12.
2. Limiting the amount of charity one can order given away upon his death to a fifth.


1928 USSR

Two Zionist emissaries were arrested and never heard from again.


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